Chapter 25. Romanticism in Classic Forms: Orchestral, Chamber, and Choral Music

Chapter Outline



Alongside the fashion for home music-making explored in the previous chapter, the nineteenth century saw phenomenal growth in public concerts. Amateur orchestras and choral societies carried amateur performance into the public sphere, and new professional orchestras, touring virtuosos, concert societies, and entrepreneurs helped to create a vibrant concert life based on ticket sales to all classes of society. Chamber music, once primarily intended for the enjoyment of the players themselves, was now often performed as concert music. 

These changes were accompanied by the gradual emergence of musical classics, pieces that continued to be performed regularly long after the composer뭩 death. From the 1780s through the 1870s, classical repertoires formed first in choral music, starting with the oratorios of Handel and Haydn, and then in orchestral and chamber music, beginning with symphonies and string quartets of Beethoven, Haydn, and Mozart. Instead of falling out of fashion after a generation, as music had always done, some pieces attained a permanent place in musical life, akin to the classics of literature or art. Living composers in these genres could aspire to similar permanence for their own music. 

In part because older music for orchestra, chamber ensemble, and chorus was still being performed, nineteenth-century composers mixed retrospective genres and forms with the new musical style. They still held onto their Romantic ideals-expressing feelings sincerely and projecting a distinctive personality-but their historical awareness was more acute than it was in piano music and songs. Composers sought to balance tradition and individuality, some leaning toward innovation, others toward emulating the past. The result is a rich tension in much of this music between Romantic content and Classic genres and forms. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Musical Developments in the Early Nineteenth Century
    1. Growth in public concerts
      1. Amateur orchestras and choral societies gave public performances.
      2. New professional orchestras and touring virtuosos contributed to a vibrant concert life.
      3. Chamber music was now performed as concert music.
    2. Musical classics
      1. Musical classics are works that continue to be performed after the composer’s death.
      2. Classical repertories first formed in choral music, beginning with the oratorios of Handel and Haydn.
      3. Orchestral and chamber music began with the symphonies and string quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
      4. Nineteenth-century composers aspired to have their works considered to be classics.
    3. Music for orchestra, chamber ensemble, and chorus
      1. Since older works for these ensembles were still being performed, historical awareness of them was more acute than it was for piano music and songs.
      2. Composers mixed classic forms and genres with the new musical style.
      3. Tradition was balanced with individuality.
  2. Orchestras and Concerts
    1. Orchestras in the nineteenth century
      1. The number of orchestras increased rapidly.
      2. Some orchestras consisted of amateurs only.
      3. Professional orchestras were established as well.
        1. London Philharmonic (founded 1813)
        2. New York Philharmonic (1842)
        3. Vienna Philharmonic (1842)
        4. Most major European and American cities had orchestras by the end of the century.
      4. Orchestras also appeared in opera houses, theaters, cafes, and dance halls.
      5. During the century, the size of the orchestras increased from about forty players to as many as ninety.
    2. Orchestral instruments
      1. Changes were introduced to wind instruments (see Chapter 24 Innovations, page 600-601, and HWM Figures 24.3-24.5).
        1. Flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons acquired elaborate systems of keys, enabling them to play faster and better in tune.
        2. The piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon were used occasionally.
        3. Horns and trumpets added valves, enabling them to reach chromatic notes.
        4. Tubas began to appear in orchestras in the 1830s.
      2. Orchestral music became more colorful.
        1. Winds and brass became equals to the strings.
        2. The bass drum, triangle, and other percussion instruments were used in some works.
        3. The new, fully chromatic pedal harp was also added.
      3. Other than harp players, professional performers were usually men.
    3. Conductors
      1. In the eighteenth century, a violin or harpsichord player led the orchestra.
      2. A conductor took over these duties in the nineteenth century.
      3. Using a baton, the conductor beat time and cued entrances.
      4. By the 1840s, conductors like Louis Jullien began to assert themselves as interpreters of music and became stars in their own right (see HWM Figure 25.1).
    4. Audiences and concerts
      1. Audiences for the new orchestras were primarily middle class, often the same people who were home music enthusiasts.
      2. Many orchestral pieces appeared in piano transcriptions for home playing.
      3. Orchestra music was prestigious, partly due to Beethoven’s symphonies.
      4. Programs in the nineteenth century offered a wide variety of works.
        1. The variety of performing forces might include a symphony, choral ensemble, and a chamber group.
        2. Genres could include solo vocal, choral, and orchestral works.
        3. Concerts of music in a single medium, like the recitals of Liszt, did not become the rule until late in the century.
    5. The rise of a classical repertoire impacted concerts.
      1. In the 1780s, about 85 percent of the pieces performed by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra were newly composed.
      2. By 1879, nearly three-quarters of the repertoire was from earlier generations.
      3. Reasons for this change
        1. Some composers, such as Haydn and Beethoven, achieved such popularity during their life that their music continued to be performed.
        2. Earlier music was cheaper to publish and more readily available.
        3. Critics used music of the past to measure contemporary music.
        4. Many performers established themselves as interpreters of past music.
      4. The shadow of Beethoven’s orchestral masterpieces touched almost all later composers.
  3. Franz Schubert and the New Romantic Style
    1. Schubert maintained the outward form of a symphony, but infused it with the new Romantic style.
      1. Tuneful melodies
      2. Adventurous harmonies
      3. Colorful instrumentation
      4. Strong contrasts
      5. Heightened emotions
      6. For the Romantics, the theme was the most important element in form.
    2. Unfinished Symphony (1822) was Schubert’s first large-scale symphony.
      1. Schubert completed only two of the planned four movements.
      2. The two principal melodies are songlike melodies (see HWM Example 25.1).
      3. The development and coda sections focus on the introductory subject.
    3. Symphony No. 9 in C Major (The Great, 1825-28).
      1. Schubert blends Romantic lyricism and Beethovenian drama within an expanded Classic form.
      2. An unaccompanied chorale-like melody played by horns opens the symphony (see HWM Example 25.2).
        1. The theme is repeated several times as a set of variations.
        2. The section serves as a slow introduction to a sonata-allegro form.
        3. Portions of the theme will reappear in the exposition.
      3. The sonata form has a three-key exposition: C major, E minor, G major.
      4. The sonata-form themes are easily fragmented, as one would find in works of Haydn and Beethoven.
      5. Robert Schumann praised the C-Major Symphony for its “heavenly length” (see HWM Source Reading, page 637).
      6. Like the Unfinished Symphony, this work was not performed in Schubert’s lifetime.
  4. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) (see HWM biography, page 638, and Figure 25.2)
    1. Biography
      1. Born in southeastern France, he taught himself harmony and began composing in his teens.
      2. He played flute and guitar, but not piano.
      3. He won the Prix de Rome in 1830 and worked in that city for several years.
      4. Harriet Smithson
        1. Berlioz became infatuated with Harriet Smithson and made her the subject of Symphonie fantastique.
        2. They later married and divorced.
      5. One of the most literary of composers, he often based his compositions on great works of literature.
      6. Berlioz turned to musical criticism as his chief profession.
      7. Berlioz produced his own concerts, and later started a career of conducting.
    2. Symphonie fantastique (1830)
      1. This five-movement symphony, inspired by Smithson, deals with the passions aroused by a woman.
      2. Berlioz employs a recurring melody, which he called the idée fixe (fixed idea) (see HWM Example 25.3).
        1. The theme appears in each movement representing the hero’s beloved.
        2. The theme is transformed to suit the mood and situation of the story.
        3. It is first heard as the extended first theme of the first movement.
      3. Berlioz subtitled the work “Episode in the Life of an Artist” and gave it a program (see NAWM 121).
        1. The program functions as the words of a drama that are read, not spoken.
        2. The text of the program is in a passionate prose that reveals several literary influences.
      4. The first movement is entitled “Dreams and Passions.”
        1. A slow introduction precedes an allegro that resembles sonata form.
        2. The development section is interrupted by the main theme in the dominant.
      5. The second movement, a waltz instead of a minuet, reenacts a ball scene.
      6. The slow third movement is a pastorale with dialogues between piping shepherds.
      7. In the fourth movement, a macabre orchestral tour de force, the hero dreams of his execution.
      8. The fifth movement depicts a Witches’ Sabbath (NAWM 121).
        1. The colorful opening suggests the convergence of ghosts, wizards, and monsters.
        2. A distorted idée fixe in the clarinet represents the debauched beloved.
        3. The E-flat clarinet mockingly plays the entire idée fixe.
        4. Bells sound with fragments of the round dance.
        5. Three phrases of the Dies irae are played; each phrase is given three times.
        6. The round dance begins as a fugue.
        7. The round dance and the Dies irae are played together.
      9. Originality of Symphonie fantastique
        1. Using a symphony for a narrative
        2. Unifying a work through a recurring theme and thematic transformation
        3. Use of an astonishing array of instrumental colors
      10. Orchestration
        1. Muted strings suggest dreaming.
        2. Harps are heard at the ball.
        3. The English horn and an offstage oboe imitate shepherds’ pipes.
        4. A snare drum and cymbals are heard in the march to the scaffold.
        5. Tubular bells represent church bells.
        6. The violins play with the wood of the bow during the witches’ dance.
    3. Harold en Italie (Harold in Italy, 1832)
      1. This symphony draws its title from Lord Byron’s poem Childe Harold.
      2. The substance is drawn from Berlioz’s recollections of Italy.
      3. The work features a solo viola, which is not as prominent as in a concerto.
      4. Paganini commissioned the work, but refused to play it.
      5. A recurring theme in the viola appears in each movement and is combined contrapuntally with other themes.
      6. In the final movement, the earlier themes are summed up, but the mood remains passive, like Byron’s antihero.
    4. Later symphonies
      1. Romeo et Juliette (1839, revised ca. 1847) is a dramatic symphony with a chorus and soloists.
      2. The Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (Grand Funeral and Triumphant Symphony, 1840), for military band with optional strings and chorus, is one of the early masterpieces of band music.
    5. Berlioz’s achievement
      1. Symphonie fantastique and other works made him the leader of the radicals in the Romantic era.
      2. All subsequent composers of program music were indebted to him.
      3. He enriched orchestral music with new harmonies, color, expression, and form.
      4. The idée fixe inspired other cyclical symphonies in the century.
      5. His orchestration initiated an era in which instrumental color rivaled harmony and melody as expressive tools for composers.
      6. He wrote the first book on orchestration: Treatise on Instrumentation and Orchestration (1843).
  5. Felix Mendelssohn and Classical Romanticism
    1. Mendelssohn’s works have a more Classic sound than those of Berlioz.
      1. He was trained in Classic forms in his youth, composing thirteen string symphonies with Classical forms and procedures.
      2. His mature symphonies blend Classic models with elements of Romanticism.
    2. Symphonies
      1. The five symphonies are numbered by date of publication.
      2. Symphony No. 5 (Reformation, 1830) concludes with a movement based on Luther’s chorale Ein’ feste Burg.
      3. Symphony No. 2, titled Lobgesang (Song of Praise, 1840), includes solo voices, chorus, and organ.
      4. Symphony No. 3 (Scottish, 1842) was based on impressions from a trip to the British Isles.
      5. Symphony No. 4 (Italian, 1833) is based on impressions from a trip to Italy (see HWM Figure 25.3).
        1. This work projects the energy of the sunny, vibrant south.
        2. The slow movement suggests a procession of chanting pilgrims.
        3. The finale presents a spirited saltarello, a lively Italian dance.
      6. The first movement of the Italian Symphony has three primary themes.
        1. The symphony opens with a theme inspired by Italian opera (see HWM Example 25.4).
        2. The second theme is similar in character to the first.
        3. A new theme appears in the development section.
        4. All three themes are recalled in the recapitulation, creating a Classical sense of unity.
    3. Overtures
      1. Several overtures painted musical landscapes
        1. The Hebrides (or Fingal’s Cave, 1832) is based on his Scottish travels.
        2. Meerestille und gl�ckliche Fahrt (Becalmed at Sea and Prosperous Voyage, 1828-1832)
      2. Midsummer Night’s Dream Overture (1826) is inspired by Shakespeare’s comedy.
        1. This masterwork was composed when he was seventeen.
        2. It became the standard for all subsequent concert overtures.
        3. The perpetual motion of the opening suggests dancing fairies.
        4. A clear sonata form underlies an imaginative use of musical figuration and orchestral color.
        5. The overture projects various images, ranging from fairy dust to the braying of a donkey.
        6. Mendelssohn would later write additional music for the play, including the famous Wedding March.
    4. Concertos
      1. Mendelssohn emphasized musical content rather than empty virtuosity.
      2. Of the four piano concertos, two were published in his lifetime.
        1. No. 1 in G Minor (1831)
        2. No. 2 in D Minor (1837)
      3. The Violin Concerto in E Minor (1844) was written for his friend, violinist Ferdinand David.
      4. The violin concerto has three movements played without pauses.
        1. A transition leads from the first movement to the lyrical andante.
        2. The transition to the finale alludes to the opening theme of the first movement.
      5. The first movement has several formal innovations.
        1. The movement begins with the violin solo instead of an orchestral statement, creating a sonata-form structure.
        2. The cadenza is placed before the recapitulation rather than in the closing ritornello.
      6. The ABA’ middle movement is a romance for violin and orchestra.
      7. The last movement is a sonata-rondo form: ABACAB’A. (NAWM 122).
        1. The lightness suggests the character of a scherzo.
        2. The violin and orchestra share equally in the finale.
        3. The leading melodies move seamlessly between the soloist and orchestra.
        4. The initial return of A is in G major, rather than the tonic.
        5. A new lyric theme is introduced in C.
        6. At the reprise of A in the tonic, the C theme becomes a countermelody.
        7. The coda is based on motives from B.
  6. Robert Schumann
    1. Schumann viewed the symphony as a prestigious genre and modeled his works after Schubert’s Great Symphony and the works of Mendelssohn.
    2. Schumann composed four major symphonies.
      1. Symphony No. 1 in B-flat Major (Spring, 1841) is fresh and spontaneous.
      2. Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, from 1842, has strong cyclic qualities.
        1. The four movements are played without a break.
        2. They are joined by harmonic links and a transitional passage that leads to the finale, as in Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5.
        3. All movements contain themes derived from the slow introduction.
        4. The work appears as an extended symphonic fantasia that encompasses the standard four movements of a symphony.
      3. Schumann’s symphonic themes typically dwell on one rhythmic figure (see HWM Example 25.5).
      4. He creates variety by constantly changing the presentation of the theme, reflecting the Romantic generation’s interest in creating something new and distinctive in each individual work without abandoning tradition.
  7. Chamber Music
    1. Past masterpieces greatly influenced the composition of chamber music.
      1. Chamber music was still played at home, but performances were increasingly found in concerts by professional ensembles (see HWM Figure 25.4).
      2. Genres associated with Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, such as the string quartet, violin sonata, and piano trio, were treated seriously.
      3. Composers increasingly aspired to match the individuality of Beethoven’s middle and late quartets.
    2. Schubert
      1. Schubert composed several string quartets for home performance in his youth.
      2. The Trout Quintet (1819) is for piano, violin, viola, cello, and bass.
        1. The work has five movements.
        2. The fourth movement presents variations on his song Die Forelle (The Trout).
      3. Schubert’s most important chamber music are dramatic concert pieces.
        1. String Quartet in A Minor (1824)
        2. String Quartet in D Minor (Death and the Maiden, 1824)
        3. String Quartet in G Major (1826)
        4. String Quintet in C Major (1828)
      4. String Quintet in C Major (1828)
        1. This work is often considered to be his chamber music masterwork.
        2. It is written for a string quartet with an additional cello.
        3. All five instruments are treated equally, and they are grouped in ever-changing ways.
        4. The second theme of the first movement appears in a variety of instrumental combinations (see HWM Example 25.6).
        5. There are strong contrasts of mood and style between the movements.
    3. Mendelssohn
      1. His numerous youthful works are modeled after Haydn, Mozart, and Bach.
      2. His first recognized masterpiece was the String Octet, Op. 20 (1825).
      3. String Quartets in A Minor, Op. 13 (1827) and E-flat Major, Op. 12 (1829)
        1. These works show the influence of Beethoven’s late string quartets.
        2. The movements are integrated through thematic connections, while each maintains a distinctive character.
      4. Piano Trios in D Minor, Op. 29, and C Minor, Op. 66
        1. His most characteristic works, these trios are tuneful and feature idiomatic writing.
        2. Both have a slow movement in the manner of his Song without Words and scherzos in pixieish style.
        3. In such works, the classic genre and forms serve as vessels for the Romantic material.
    4. Schumann
      1. Schumann enjoyed a “chamber music year” in 1842-43.
        1. He published three quartets as Op. 41.
        2. These were followed by a piano quintet and a piano quartet.
      2. Schumann felt that a string quartet should resemble a four-way conversation.
      3. He also believed that quartet composers should build on the tradition of the Classic masters rather than simply imitate them.
      4. His chamber works reveal a strong influence of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
      5. Piano Trios No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 63, and No. 2 in F Major, Op. 80
        1. Schumann incorporated more polyphony in these works due to the influence of Bach.
        2. Although the two works differ in mood, they both balance intellectual rigor with expressivity.
        3. This balance made these his most influential chamber works.
    5. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
      1. Women composers wrote relatively little chamber music.
      2. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel composed several works, but only the Piano Trio Op. 11 was published in her lifetime.
        1. The work exhibits idiomatic writing, expressive themes, and convincing development.
        2. The first movement is a long dramatic sonata-form movement with virtuosic material for the piano.
        3. An expressive andante and a song without words follow.
        4. In the finale, a recitative and a nocturne-like passage for unaccompanied piano precede an impassioned sonata form.
        5. In all movements, the instruments share melodic material.
    6. Clara Schumann
      1. She regarded the Piano Trio in G Minor (1846) as her best work.
      2. The work has four movements, instead of the usual three.
      3. The first and last movements, set in sonata form, combine traits from Baroque, Classic, and Romantic models.
        1. Memorable songlike themes
        2. Rich polyphonic treatment
        3. Motivic development
        4. Imitation and fugal treatment
        5. Rousing codas
      4. The second movement is in a minuet tempo, but is labeled a scherzo to highlight subtle rhythmic tricks.
      5. The slow movement is in G major (NAWM 123).
        1. It is in a modified ABA form.
        2. The A sections, like nocturnes, are somewhat melancholy.
        3. The B section, in D minor, is more animated.
        4. The textures are constantly changing (see HWM Example 25.7).
  8. Choral Music
    1. Background
      1. Amateur choirs became more common than professional ones.
        1. Church choirs were increasingly made up of amateurs.
        2. Outside of the church, most choirs were for the enjoyment of the singers.
        3. Because of the association with amateurs, choral music has been seen as less prestigious than orchestral music and opera.
      2. Choral music was one of the first repertoires to be dominated by past music.
      3. Newly composed music retained traditional genres and formats, but not necessarily traditional style.
      4. Types of choral music in the nineteenth century
        1. Oratorios
        2. Short choral works on secular texts
        3. Liturgical works
      5. Choral music was a lucrative field for publishers.
      6. Choral societies were amateur choirs in which singers paid dues to pay for the conductor and concert expenses.
      7. The Berlin Singakademie
        1. One of the first choral societies, it began as a singing class for wealthy ladies.
        2. Men were accepted in 1791, and the group gave its first concert.
        3. By 1800, it had grown to almost 150 members.
        4. The director at that time, Carl Friedrich Zelter, also added an orchestra.
        5. By his death in 1832, the chorus had over 350 singers.
      8. Similar organizations appeared throughout Europe and the United States.
      9. All-male choruses, often with working-class men, were popular, especially with German populations.
      10. Choral singing was seen to have many social benefits (see HWM Source Reading, page 652).
      11. Choral festivals
        1. Music festivals allowed amateur choirs from a region to gather and perform.
        2. The first festival, focusing on the works of Handel, appeared in England in 1759, the year of the composer’s death.
        3. Festivals spread across Europe and the United States.
        4. Festival choirs grew to enormous sizes (see HWM Figure 25.5).
        5. Patrick S. Gilmore organized a performance in Boston with an orchestra numbering two thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand.
    2. Oratorios and other large works
      1. Oratorios by Handel and Haydn were the core of the repertoire for large choruses.
      2. The Handel and Haydn Society, founded in Boston in 1815, is the oldest music organization in the United States that is still active.
      3. The Bach revival
        1. In 1829, Mendelssohn conducted the first performance of the St. Matthew Passion since Bach’s death.
        2. Revivals of Bach’s St. John Passion and Mass in B Minor followed.
        3. Bach’s choral music, which was intended for performance by eight to twelve singers and a small orchestra, was transformed into concert works for large chorus and orchestra.
    3. Oratorios by Mendelssohn
      1. Mendelssohn composed two oratorios that became standards of choral repertoire.
        1. St. Paul (1836)
        2. Elijah (1846)
      2. Common features
        1. Composed for choral festivals
        2. Treated biblical subjects
        3. Received great acclaim in Europe and North America
      3. Elijah is rooted in Baroque traditions, but also has new features.
        1. Chorales mark structural divisions, as in Bach’s Passions.
        2. Mendelssohn employs a wide variety of styles and textures, like Handel.
        3. Unifying motives and links between movements integrate the work into a cohesive whole.
      4. The final chorus of Elijah (NAWM 124) is Handelian in spirit.
        1. The work opens with a powerful homorhythmic statement.
        2. A vigorous fugue culminates in a chordal statement of the theme.
        3. An imitative “Amen” closes the work.
        4. Contrasts of minor, major, and chromaticism suggest more recent musical styles.
    4. Grand choral works by Berlioz
      1. Grandiosity reached a pinnacle in two works by Berlioz.
        1. Requiem (Grande Messe des Morts, 1837)
        2. Te Deum (1855)
      2. These works are not ecclesiastical, but belong to a patriotic tradition of massive music festivals.
      3. Both works are huge in length and number of performers.
    5. Partsongs
      1. The partsong became the staple of small choirs.
      2. Parallel to the Lied or parlor song, partsongs were composed by most major vocal composers.
      3. The subjects were patriotic, sentimental, and convivial; nature was a particular favorite.All Among the Barley (1849) was one of the most popular English partsongs (see HWM Example 25.8).
      4. All Among the Barley (1849) was one of the most popular English partsongs (see HWM Example 25.8).
        1. Elizabeth Stirling (1819-1895), the composer, was a renowned organist and composer in London.
        2. The music is attractive to amateur singers.
      5. The partsong declined after the nineteenth century, and no permanent repertoire of classics developed.
  9. Church Music
    1. Catholic
      1. Catholic churches tended not to use amateurs, but clerics and choirboys instead; women generally did not perform in church.
      2. A number of Catholic composers still created concert liturgical music.
        1. Schubert created two exemplary masses, in A-flat and E-flat major.
        2. Rossini’s Stabat Mater (1832, revised 1841) brought current operatic styles into church.
      3. A revival of the sixteenth-century choral style of Palestrina began in the second quarter of the century.
        1. In the nineteenth century, the term a cappella came to mean “unaccompanied.”
        2. By midcentury, the Church promoted composition in the unaccompanied style of Palestrina.
        3. The Cecilian movement, which encouraged a cappella performances of old and new music, centered in German-speaking areas.
    2. Protestant
      1. Protestant churches also built on their musical heritage.
        1. The Berlin Singakaemie performed Bach’s Passions.
        2. New music was composed using Bach as a model, such as the psalm-settings of Mendelssohn.
        3. Other works from the past were recovered, including the anthems of Samuel Sebastian Wesley.
      2. Women began to sing in churches and serve as professional organists.
      3. The Oxford Movement, beginning in 1842, sought to restore all-male choirs and revive sixteenth-century unaccompanied polyphony.
    3. Russian Orthodox music
      1. Dmitri Bortnyansky (1751-1825), director of the imperial chapel choir at St. Petersburg, helped create a new style of Russian church music.
      2. The style was inspired by modal chants of the Orthodox liturgy.
      3. It used free rhythm and unaccompanied voices with octave doublings.
    4. The United States
      1. African American churches developed their own style of music, which would have enormous influence.
        1. Reverend Richard Allen organized the first congregation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in the 1790s.
        2. He published a hymnbook designed for his all-black congregation.
      2. In white churches, music was subject to European trends.
      3. Both old and new songs were published in collections, such as the popular The Sacred Harp (1844).
      4. Shape-note singing is the tradition of performing this music using a special notation derived in part from the syllables introduced by Guido of Arezzo.
      5. The tune New Britain was set with the poetic text of “Amazing Grace” (see HWM Figure 25.6).
        1. The setting uses shape-note notation.
        2. The principal tune is in the tenor line.
        3. The harmonization has many open fifths, dissonant fourths over the bass, and parallel fifths and octaves.
      6. Lowell Mason (1792-1872)
        1. Mason became president of the Handel and Haydn Society and helped found the Boston Academy of Music, which provided musical instruction for children.
        2. He deplored the crude music of Yankee tunesmiths and championed a modest European style.
        3. He composed some 1,200 original hymn tunes and arranged many others.
      7. Bethany (1856) by Lowell is set to the poem “Nearer, My God, to Thee” (see HWM Example 25.9).
        1. The melody is largely pentatonic and in a modified AABA form.
        2. The harmony follows the rules of European music of the time.

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