Chapter 35. The End of the Millennium

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

In the last three decades of the twentieth century and the first years of the twenty-first, the Western musical tradition continued to diversify. New institutions were created to preserve the history of jazz and popular music, while new types such as punk and rap emerged to meet new functions. Digital synthesizers and computers provided new resources for electronic music in both classical and popular traditions. New forms of mixed media challenged old distinctions between art and popular music and between music, theater, dance, and other arts. Among composers in the classical tradition, an increased interest in reaching a broad audience produced a number of new currents, including minimalism and neo-Romanticism. At the same time, almost all the trends discussed in the previous chapter continued, and many composers pursued individual paths. 

Because this chapter cannot do justice to all the varied music of this era, we will look at only a few salient issues. We will begin with a survey of the changing world of music, noting especially the broadening conception of music as an art, the influence of new digital technologies, and the increasing importance of mixed media. We will then examine four trends that seem especially prominent in these decades: the fragmentation of popular music; minimalism and its offshoots; a rising concern among classical composers for writing immediately accessible music; and the impact of non-Western musics on musicians in Western traditions. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Developments since 1970
    1. Musical changes during the last few decades
      1. The broadening conception of music as art
      2. The influence of digital technologies
      3. The increasing importance of mixed media
    2. Four trends are especially prominent.
      1. The fragmentation of popular music
      2. Minimalism and its offshoots
      3. Composers in the classical tradition wrote more accessible music.
      4. The influence of non-Western music
    3. Historical developments
      1. The late 1960s and 1970s saw numerous political and economic shocks, including assassinations, riots, and a presidential resignation.
      2. Cold War tensions decreased, and Communism eventually collapsed in Eastern Europe in the 1990s.
      3. New conflicts and threats emerged, most notably in the attacks on September 11, 2001.
      4. Global economies became more interdependent.
      5. Communication technology produced cable television, personal computers, fax machines, and cell phones.
      6. The arts appealed to a growing international audience.
        1. In this multinational world, people are exposed to a great variety of music on a daily basis.
        2. Characteristics of various musical types have crossed over and blended with other musical traditions.
  2. Broadening the Meaning of “Art Music”
    1. Jazz
      1. Each style of jazz continues to be performed and to attract listeners.
      2. All styles of jazz are available on recordings; historical recordings have been transferred to compact discs (see HWM Music in Context, page 947).
      3. New institutions preserve the classics of jazz, as jazz is now regarded as art music with its own classic canon.
    2. Rock
      1. The history of rock music is now taught at colleges.
      2. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame preserves the rock legacy (see HWM Figure 35.1).
      3. Continuing sales of recordings of rock music from the 1950s and the number of “golden oldies” radio stations give evidence of a tradition of classics.
    3. Country music
      1. Country music has also developed a classic repertory.
      2. The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville opened in 2001.
    4. Musicals
      1. Classic musicals have been revived on Broadway and around the world.
      2. New musicals often aspire to a high art level.
      3. Stephen Sondheim (b. 1930), the dominant figure in American musicals, uses a mixture of art song and popular styles.
      4. Sondheim’s subjects would not have been done earlier.
        1. Company (1970) is a plotless social commentary.
        2. Sweeney Todd (1979) deals with a murderous barber.
        3. Sunday in the Park with George (1984) is based on a painting.
        4. Assassins (1991) features assassins of American presidents.
      5. Andrew Lloyd Webber (b. 1948), the leading English composer of musicals, draws on a wide range of styles, while retaining the focus on melody.
        1. Jesus Christ Superstar (1970-71) is a rock music retelling of the life of Jesus.
        2. Evita (1976-78) is about Eva Peron, the wife of the Argentinean dictator.
        3. Cats (1981) is based on poetry by T. S. Eliot.
        4. The Phantom of the Opera (1986) is based on the classic book and film.
      6. Claude-Michel Schönberg, a French composer, has created a number of successful musicals.
        1. Les Misérables (1980) is based on Victor Hugo’s novel.
        2. Miss Saigon (1989) retells Madama Butterfly in the context of the Vietnam War.
      7. Rent (1996) by Jonathan Larson adapts the plot of La Boh�me to a story of New York in the era of AIDS.
      8. Asian classic traditions have also received international recognition.
  3. New Technologies
    1. Digital synthesis, recording, and reproduction have had a major impact on the creators and listeners of music (see HWM Music in Context, page 947, and Figure 35.2).
    2. Sampling
      1. This new process allows one to create a new composition by patching together digital portions of previously recorded music.
      2. Sampling has been used extensively in rap, other forms of popular music, avant-garde, and classical concert music.
    3. Composers have explored advancements in computers.
      1. Charles Dodge (b. 1942)
        1. Speech Songs (1972) features computer-synthesized vocal sounds.
        2. Manipulations of lifelike imitations of speech create a word-based music.
      2. Paul Lansky (b. 1944) developed his own software to create music.
        1. Smalltalk (1988) manipulates speech, and Night Traffic (1990) manipulates traffic noises, transforming them beyond immediate recognition.
        2. He also draws upon pop traditions, includ-ing tonal harmonies and a regular meter.
      3. Jean-Claude Risset (b. 1938) served as director of the Institute for Acoustic and Musical Research and Coordination in Paris.
        1. Inharmonique (1977) uses a computer to mediate between live musical sounds and synthesized sounds.
        2. He continues to design new sounds through the interaction of sound waves, harmonics, timbre, and other elements of sound.
  4. Mixed Media
    1. Stage shows and music videos
      1. By the 1980s, stage shows for popular music concerts involved elaborate sets, costumes, intricate choreography, and visual effects.
      2. Music videos
        1. Short films accompanying the performance of popular songs came of age in the early 1980s.
        2. The cable channel MTV promoted music videos.
        3. Videos were elaborate productions, with sets, costumes, dancing, and quick editing.
    2. Laurie Anderson (b. 1947) is one of the leading performance artists (see HWM Figure 35.3).
      1. Anderson employs a wide range of media, including singing and violin-playing.
      2. O Superman (1981), featuring her synthesizer-processed voice in a simple song, became a pop hit.
      3. United States I-IV (1983) is a seven-hour stage show that uses all the tools of modern media.
    3. Spectacle works
      1. STOMP (1991), created by Luke Cresswell and Steve McNicholase, has no dialogue and consists of performers using everyday objects to produce elaborate percussion music with stunning choreography (see HWM Figure 35.4)
      2. Blast! (2001) by Jim Mason brought the routines of marching-band halftime shows to Broadway.
    4. Film music
      1. In some recent films, music has become a central part of the total artwork.
      2. American Graffiti (1973) set a pattern by using pop music of the 1950s and 60s.
      3. Full symphonic scores with leitmotives, such as heard in the music by John Williams (b. 1932) for the Star Wars movies, has reemerged in film scoring.
      4. Symphonic soundtracks have become popular recordings, outpacing other orchestral music.
  5. The Splintering of Popular Music
    1. Disco
      1. This style began as a type of dance music in New York during the 1970s.
      2. The music catered to African Americans, Latinos, and gay men before becoming an international craze.
      3. Slick production and lush orchestrations characterized these uniform, 4/4 meter dance works.
      4. Disco reached a height with the film Saturday Night Fever (1977), featuring music by the Bee Gees.
    2. Other rock types
      1. Punk featured a hard-driving style and voiced teenager alienation.
        1. The Sex Pistols popularized edgy fashions and preached nihilism.
        2. Most punk musicians were untutored and used raw, unskilled sounds.
      2. New Wave groups, such as Talking Heads, maintained the nihilism of punk but incorporated trained musical skills.
      3. Grunge
        1. This is one type of alternative rock, a general term for rock music that is separate from the mainstream.
        2. Grunge, centering in Seattle in the early 1990s, combined nihilism and the electric-guitar sound of heavy metal with intimate lyrics and dressed-down fashions.
        3. Nirvana’s Smells Like Teen Spirit (1991) brought grunge to national attention.
    3. Rap
      1. Rap began in the 1970s as part of the African-American urban youth culture.
      2. The style featured rhymed lyrics over repeated dance beats.
      3. From its New York beginnings, it has branched out into multiple types.
        1. Gangsta rap celebrates lawlessness.
        2. Conscious rap voices the woes of inequality and racism.
      4. Public Enemy led the ranks of conscious rap with songs like Fight the Power (see HWM Figure 35.5).
      5. Rap soon appealed to white suburban teenagers and to international audiences.
    4. Music subcultures
      1. Women’s music is often in a folk style and reflects a feminist perspective.
      2. Christian rock uses current popular styles to convey evangelical Christian themes.
  6. Minimalism
    1. Minimalism is considered to be the leading musical style of the late twentieth century.
      1. Materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures are simplified.
      2. The content of the music should be readily apparent.
      3. Minimalism began as an avant-garde style but became a popular and expressive technique.
      4. Influences for minimalism came from numerous sources:
        1. Rock music
        2. African music
        3. Asian music
        4. Tonality
        5. Romanticism
    2. Minimalism in art
      1. The term, first coined by an art critic in 1965, was applied to art that reduced materials and form to fundamentals.
      2. The works were not intended to express feelings or states of mind.
      3. Minimalist works often feature repetition of simple elements (see HWM Figure 35.6).
    3. Early minimalism in music
      1. Musicians in New York and California created a parallel movement.
      2. La Monte Young (b. 1935), one of the pioneers, used improvisation over a fundamental drone on synthesizer in The Tortoise: His Dreams and Journeys (1964).
    4. Terry Riley (b. 1935)
      1. Riley was a member of La Monte Young’s ensemble.
      2. He experimented with tape loops that played the same material repeatedly.
      3. In C (1964) applied similar procedures with live instruments.
        1. Any number of instruments can play; each plays the same series of brief repeated figures over a pulsing octave C.
        2. The number of repetitions in each part and the coordination of parts are left to the performers in the tradition of indeterminacy.
        3. These elements create a steady pulse with a slow change from consonance to dissonance and back.
    5. Steve Reich (b. 1936)
      1. Reich, along with Glass and Adams, brought minimalist procedures into art music with the intent of appealing to a wide audience.
      2. He developed a quasi-canonic procedure in which musicians play the same material out of phase with each other.
      3. Piano Phase (1967), for two pianos (see HWM Example 31.1)
        1. The same figure is repeated several times.
        2. One pianist then pulls ahead slightly, creating new harmonic combinations,
      4. Reich founded his own ensemble, and wrote percussive music in the 1970s.
      5. He attracted a wide range of listeners from the classical and pop worlds.
      6. Reich used minimalist techniques to create large-scale works with significant emotional content in the 1980s, such as Tehillim (1981), a setting of psalm texts in Hebrew.
    6. Philip Glass (b. 1937)
      1. Glass studied at Juilliard with Nadia Boulanger.
      2. In Paris he met and worked with Indian sitarist Ravi Shankar.
      3. In the mid-1960s, he composed music that combined the rhythmic organization of Indian music with simple harmonic progressions and the amplification of rock music.
      4. Einstein on the Beach (1976) is a one act, four-hour opera.
        1. There is no text other than solfege syllables, and the staging is nonsensical.
        2. The music consists primarily of repeated arpeggiations.
        3. The orchestra includes electronic keyboard instruments, woodwinds, and a solo violinist.
      5. Other operas followed, including The Voyage (1992).
    7. John Adams (b. 1947; see HWM Figure 35.7)
      1. Phrygian Gates for piano (1977-78) represents minimalism in its early transitional phase.
      2. Adams later combined minimalism with other techniques and styles.
      3. Harmonielehre (1985), a symphonic poem, recalls Mahler or Berg.
      4. Nixon in China (1987) is an opera dealing with Nixon’s visit to China.
        1. Minimalist techniques are combined with formal Baroque opera.
        2. Short, driving ideas constantly evolve.
      5. Later works rely less on minimalism and more on traditional harmonic and contrapuntal means.
    8. Phrygian Gates by Adams (see NAWM 168 and HWM Example 35.2)
      1. This twenty-four-minute piano work relies predominantly on rapid repetitive figuration or alternating chords.
      2. The pitch content goes through a number of changes, what Adams calls “gates.”
        1. He explores seven tonal centers moving through the circle of fifths: A, E, B, F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, and D-sharp.
        2. Each key center begins with the pitch content of the Lydian mode and then changes to that of the Phrygian mode.
        3. The pitches of the seven tonal centers correspond to the notes of the A Lydian mode, the first set of pitches in the work.
      3. In the A Lydian section, pitches are added one at a time, beginning with E and ending with A.
      4. The arrival of A Phrygian (measure 114) coincides with the first forte dynamics.
      5. The E Lydian area (measure 137) begins with a dynamic drop and builds to a fff at the arrival of E Phrygian (measure 236).
      6. Adams alters rhythm, register, and chords to provide contrasts and emotional surges.
  7. The New Accessibility
    1. Audiences and the classic tradition
      1. Composers in the classical tradition faced a new reality in the late twentieth century.
      2. Despite the support of universities, they found it difficult to get their works performed after the premieres.
      3. Few compositions entered the classical repertory.
      4. Some composers sought to appeal to a wider audience through minimalism and other techniques.
    2. Accessible modernism
      1. Some composers have used modernist ideas and procedures that are simple and easy to grasp.
      2. Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939; see HWM Figure 35.8)
        1. Zwilich combines continuous variation with older formal devices.
        2. Her use of developing variation is similar to the procedure used by Schoenberg, but the idea is much simpler and more readily understood.
    3. Symphony No. 1 (1982) by Zwilich (NAWM 169)
      1. This work earned Zwilich a Pulitzer Prize in Music, the first ever given to a woman.
      2. Familiar harmonic materials
        1. Tonal centers
        2. Prominent thirds and fifths
        3. Occasional triads
        4. The E-major triad and passionate melody at measure 13 recall Mahler.
      3. Developing variation
        1. All of the melodic material evolves through variation from the first fifteen measures.
        2. The opening threefold rising third serves as a motto and establishes A as the tonal center.
        3. This motive and an answering rising fifth create the central material for the movement.
        4. Several melodies are derived from this material.
        5. Recurring melodies are subject to further variation.
      4. The movement builds in tempo, dynamics, and density to a central allegro and then slows and thins to a quiet close.
    4. Radical simplification
      1. Some composers embraced a radical simplification of materials.
      2. One such type is minimalism, but other musical techniques also reflect this trend.
      3. Arvo Pärt (b. 1935)
        1. This Estonian composer began with neoclassical and serial works and juxtaposed modernist and Baroque styles.
        2. He later studied Gregorian chant and early polyphony.
        3. Seeking greater international opportunities, P�rt settled in Germany in 1980.
      4. Tintinnabuli
        1. The term is derived from the bell-like sonorities that it can produce.
        2. It features counterpoint between a mostly stepwise diatonic melody and voices sounding notes of the tonic triad determined by a preset system.
        3. Pärt developed this method in the 1970s
    5. Seven Magnificat Antiphons by Pärt (1988, rev. 1991) (NAWM 170)
      1. These choral works are based on antiphon texts from the week prior to Christmas.
      2. The traditional Latin has been translated into German, and these are Pärt’s first works using the language of his adopted country.
      3. O Weisheit (NAWM 170a)
        1. The text is set syllabically and homophonically.
        2. Measure lines indicate lengths of individual words and do not suggest meter.
        3. The principal melody in the tenors moves by steps within a range of a third.
        4. The pitches from the other voices are from the A-major triad.
        5. The basses and sopranos sing E and A only.
        6. The altos sing the pitches from the triad that are closest to the notes of the tenor melody.
      4. O König aller V�lker (see NAWM 170b and HWM Example 35.3)
        1. The second tenor has a modal tune centered on A.
        2. The second soprano forms an augmentation canon with the tenor.
        3. The altos recite the text on D.
        4. The other parts sound notes of the D-minor triad.
        5. The texture alternates between consonance and diatonic dissonance.
    6. Quotation and polystylism
      1. Quotation and collage included past and present styles.
      2. This style is similar to postmodernism, which considers all epochs and cultures equally for source material (see HWM Figure 35.9).
      3. Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998)
        1. Schnittke worked in the Soviet Union primarily as a film composer and moved to Germany in 1990.
        2. As the Soviet government relaxed its cultural controls in the 1960s, he explored several modernist techniques.
        3. Schnittke later turned to polystylism, a combination of new and old styles.
        4. Symphony No. 1 (1969-72) incorporates passages from works by numerous classical composers that present conflicting styles and historical periods.
        5. His later works, including eight more symphonies, focus more on a small number of ideas borrowed from or modeled on earlier music.
      4. John Corigliano (b. 1938)
        1. This American composer often draws upon styles from the Baroque and Classic to avant-garde.
        2. The opera The Ghosts of Versailles (1987) uses serial and other modern techniques to portray the ghosts, while the play is set in a Mozart opera style.
        3. Symphony No. 1 (1989) is a memorial to friends who died of AIDS and incorporates quotations of some of their favorite pieces.
      5. Peter Schickele (b. 1935)
        1. His early works are mostly tonal and draw upon a variety of styles.
        2. He is best known for creating music under the guise of P. D. Q. Bach, the fictitious youngest and least of J. S. Bach’s sons.
        3. With this persona, Schickele spoofed classic traditions, performers, and musicologists.
        4. Example: the cantata Iphigenia in Brooklyn (1964)
    7. Neo-Romanticism
      1. Some composers adopted the familiar tonal idiom of nineteenth-century Romanticism, a trend known as neo-Romanticism.
      2. Penderecki
        1. Following his earlier works, Penderecki turned to a style that focused on melody and drew upon neo-Romantic features.
        2. Polish Requiem (1980-84) combines neo-Romanticism with elements from Renaissance and Baroque styles and his textures from the 1960s.
      3. George Rochberg
        1. After working in serialism and quotation, Rochberg embraced neo-Romanticism in the 1970s.
        2. In String Quartet No. 5 (1978), three of five movements are neo-Romantic; the styles and forms evoke a wide range of composers and periods.
        3. The mixture of styles challenged the notion of stylistic uniformity.
      4. David Del Tredici (b. 1937)
        1. His early works are serial and atonal.
        2. He changed styles when he set excerpts from Lewis Carroll’s stories for children.
      5. Final Alice (1975; see HWM Example 35.4)
        1. Del Tredici based this work on the text from the final chapters of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
        2. It is scored for amplified soprano, who narrates and sings several arias, and orchestra, including banjo, mandolin, accordion, and two soprano saxophones.
        3. A rising major sixth is the central motive of “The Accusation,” sung by the White Rabbit.
        4. Most of the music is tonal, ranging from folklike to the style of Richard Strauss.
        5. The “strange occurrence” is set with atonal music and the sounds of the Theremin.
        6. Del Tredici renounced the modernist idea of progress (see HWM Source Reading, page 962).
    8. Extramusical imagery and meanings
      1. Composers using various styles sometimes invoked extramusical meanings, such as spirituality, to give unusual sounds clear meanings.
      2. Sofia Gubaidulina (b. 1931)
        1. She gave many of her works a spiritual dimension, despite the official atheism of her native Soviet Union.
        2. Rejoice! (1981) is a five-movement sonata for violin and cello inspired by devotional texts.
        3. Quotations from the Ukrainian philosopher Grigory Skovoroda appear at the beginning of each movement.
        4. The sonata expresses the transcendence from ordinary reality to joy.
        5. The passage from a fundamental note to its harmonics represents this journey.
      3. Rejoice!, fifth movement by Gubaidulina (NAWM 171)
        1. The fifth movement, Listen to the still small voice within, is a study in chromatics, tremolos, and harmonics.
        2. The violin introduces a sequence of four gestures.
        3. Three variations on the same series of ideas follow (measures 33, 70, and 122).
        4. The cello slowly and chromatically descends two octaves during the movement.
        5. The movement ends as both instruments play high natural harmonics.
      4. John Tavener (b. 1944)
        1. Stravinsky influenced the early works of this English composer.
        2. He began to incorporate elements of music for the Orthodox Church in works such as Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (1977) for unaccompanied choir.
        3. He developed a harmonically simple, chant-derived idiom and applied it to a series of instrumental works on religious subjects.
        4. The Protecting Veil for cello and string orchestra (1987) is the best-known of these works.
      5. R. Murray Schafer (b. 1933) is the leading Canadian composer of this era.
        1. He has worked in a variety of styles.
        2. Several orchestral works reflect the culture of the Inuits, natives of Canada.
        3. He developed environmental music, which moves musical performance out of the concert hall.
      6. Wilderness Lake by Schafer (1979)
        1. This work is to be performed at sunrise and sunset at a lake away from human settlements.
        2. Twelve trombonists, positioned around the shores, play meditative melodies cued by a conductor in a raft.
        3. Animal sounds are also added.
      7. Joan Tower (b. 1938)
        1. Many works by this American composer are based on images.
        2. Silver Ladders (1986), for orchestra, has rising lines representing ladders and other imagery.
  8. Interactions with Non-Western Music
    1. Minimalism is inspired in part by music from Asia and Africa.
    2. Some composers draw on Asian and African music more directly.
      1. Bright Sheng (b. 1955)
        1. Born and trained in China, he moved to New York in 1982.
        2. His music integrates elements of Asian and Western music.
      2. Seven Tunes Heard in China, No. 1, Spring (1999; NAWM 172)
        1. This suite for solo cello can be linked to the cello suites of Bach.
        2. Sheng calls upon the style of Chinese music and imitates the sound of Chinese string, wind, and percussion instruments.
        3. The predominantly pentatonic Chinese tune is fragmented and spun out using both Baroque and modernist techniques.
        4. The key area centers on the tritone of A and E-flat.
      3. South African Kevin Volans (b. 1949) has brought about a similar union of Western and African traditions.
      4. Peter Schulthorpe (b. 1929), from Australia, uses Aboriginal melodies.
    3. World Beat
      1. African popular music, called World Beat, reached international audiences.
      2. Musicians like Nigerian Fela Kuti (1938-1997) merged popular styles from the United States with local traditions.
      3. World Beat was assimilated by some Western artists, such as Paul Simon on his album Graceland (1986).
      4. All of these works are quintessentially Western, representing the centuries-old capacity of European music to absorb regional and foreign elements.
  9. The New Millennium
    1. Trends change too quickly to complete an overview of recent music.
    2. All music seems to be searching for both a niche of committed listeners and for a wide audience.
    3. The instant success of figures such as Beethoven, Verdi, Duke Ellington, and the Beatles no longer seems to be possible in such a divided world.
    4. Music of the past and of the entire world is more available than ever, allowing us to focus on variety, not just a handful of individual composers.
    5. With technology, the untrained can now make music; we may be returning to a time when every singer sings his or her own song.

Chapter 34. Postwar Crosscurrents

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

The central theme of Western music history since the midnineteenth century is a growing pluralism. With each generation, new popular traditions emerged in response to changes in society, and the heirs to the classical tradition created more diverse styles of art music at an ever increasing rate. This process accelerated in the twenty-five years after the end of World War II, propelled by an economic boom in the United States and most of western Europe, by ever more rapid communications, and by a desire among younger generations to explore new possibilities. Musicians developed new styles, trends, and traditions, including forms of popular music aimed principally at young people, such as rock and roll and its offshoots; styles of jazz, from bebop to free jazz, that demanded more concentrated listening; increasingly complex approaches to serial composition; music built of sound itself that employed new instruments, electronic music, or new sounds on orchestral instruments; applications of indeterminacy and chance in composition; and pieces based on quotation and collage of past music. In Europe, new music was often supported by governments, through radio stations and institutes, while in North America colleges and universities became major patrons of music, training young performers and music educators and supporting composers, new music ensembles, wind ensembles, and jazz programs. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. The Cold War and the Splintering Tradition
    1. The process of musical change accelerated after World War II, due to several factors.
      1. The United States and Western Europe enjoyed an economic boom.
      2. Communications continued to improve and get faster.
      3. Younger generations wanted to explore new possibilities.
    2. Music continued to change.
      1. Rock and roll emerged, and jazz explored new styles.
      2. Increasingly complex serial techniques, electronic sounds, indeterminacy, and other radical approaches were explored in concert music.
    3. Musical support
      1. Governments supported music in Europe, largely through radio stations and institutes.
      2. Colleges and universities became major patrons and teaching centers for music in the United States.
    4. The cost of World War II
      1. World War II was the most destructive war the world had seen.
      2. Millions were dead, both soldiers and civilians.
      3. Cities, artworks, and music had been destroyed.
      4. In response to the atomic attack on Japan, several nations developed nuclear weapons.
    5. The Cold War
      1. By 1948, the Soviet Union had installed Communist governments in most Eastern European countries.
      2. The United States formed an alliance with Western Europe called NATO (see HWM Figure 34.1).
      3. The division of Germany symbolized the basic conflict.
      4. The newly created United Nations helped, but could not resolve international tensions.
      5. Numerous conflicts, including the Korean War (1950-53) and the Vietnam War (1954-1975), added further tension to the Cold War.
      6. Outer space, the athletic field, and cultural fields were arenas for competition.
    6. Greater access to music
      1. The economic boom paved the way for a tremendous expansion of colleges and universities, which contributed to the growing access to the arts.
      2. Televisions and stereos brought entertainment into the home.
      3. The 78-rpm records (with 78 rotations per minute) of the prewar phonograph were replaced by LP (long-playing) records and 45-rpm “singles,” which became the main medium for popular songs.
      4. Transistors led to portable radios that could go anywhere.
      5. Improvements in tape recorders made electronic music and the preservation of sounds possible.
    7. Musical pluralism
      1. Countries in Asia and Africa gained political and economic significance, leading to greater cultural exchanges.
      2. The era saw unprecedented experimentation and diversification in music.
      3. Strident debates about music were frequent.
  2. Popular Music
    1. Popular music increasingly catered to the tastes of teenagers.
      1. During the postwar years, teenagers had more money and free time.
      2. Record companies, responding to a market in which teenagers had their own radios and purchased records, produced pop music.
      3. Teenagers of the late 1950s and 1960s listened to rock music, creating a “generation gap” with their parents.
      4. A variety of popular styles emerged, and people used music as part of their identity.
      5. The popularity of music was measured in weekly charts, which ranked the sales of 45-rpm singles.
    2. Country music
      1. Country music, or country-and-western, is associated with white southerners.
      2. With roots in folk music, the style grew in popularity after the war.
      3. Country music is a blend of many sources (see HWM Figure 34.2).
        1. Hill-country music of the southeast, based on Anglo-American ballads and fiddle tunes
        2. Western cowboy songs popularized by Gene Autry and other cowboy movies stars
        3. Popular songs of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
        4. Blues, banjo music, and other African-American traditions
        5. Big-band swing
        6. Gospel songs
      4. The popularity of country music was due to a variety of reasons.
        1. Energy
        2. Sincere sentiments
        3. Witty wordplay
        4. Ability to articulate the experience of working-class America in a rapidly changing world
      5. The music centered on a singer who also played a guitar.
      6. Other singers might join in close harmony, and an accompaniment of fiddles and additional guitars was common.
      7. Distinctive styles developed, including:
        1. Western swing
        2. Honky-tonk
        3. Bluegrass
      8. Two stars earned national acclaim.
        1. Hank Williams (1923-1953)
        2. Johnny Cash (1932-2003)
      9. Nashville became the center of country music, largely due to venues such as the Grand Ol’ Opry.
      10. By the 1970s, country music radio stations had been established across the United States.
    3. Rhythm-and-blues
      1. Rhythm-and-blues developed in urban centers just after the war.
      2. Typical ensembles
        1. Vocalist or vocal quartet
        2. Piano or organ
        3. Electric guitar
        4. Bass and drums
      3. They performed mostly new songs built on twelve-bar blues or thirty-two-bar popular song formulas.
      4. Principal differences with blues:
        1. Insistent accents on the back beats, beats two and four of the measure
        2. Whining guitar
        3. Repetitive amplified bass line
      5. The style was initially intended for African-American audiences.
      6. Interests among whites
        1. White teenagers were attracted by the sexual themes of the lyrics, the strong rhythms, and the intensity of the performances.
        2. Producers began having white singers perform songs already successful by black singers.
        3. Hound Dog, a twelve-bar blues, was a minor hit for Willie Mae “Big Mama” Thornton in 1952, but a recording by Elvis Presley sold millions in 1956.
    4. Rock and roll
      1. Rock and roll combined the unrelenting beat of rhythm-and-blues with the guitar background of country music.
      2. Instrumentation
        1. Electric guitars for rhythm and melody
        2. Electric bass and drums
        3. Sometimes other instruments augmented the ensemble
      3. Song forms were derived from Tin Pan Alley and the blues.
      4. Vocal styles ranged from boogie-woogie to country.
      5. The words, often addressing love and sex, spoke to the concerns of teens.
      6. Rock and roll became a national sensation with the appearance of the hit song Rock Around the Clock, by Bill Haley and the Comets, in the 1955 film Blackboard Jungle.
      7. Elvis Presley (1935-1977) was the first megastar.
      8. By 1960, rock and roll, or simply rock, was heard around the world.
    5. The Beatles
      1. From Liverpool, England, the Beatles featured four creative musicians.
        1. John Lennon (1940-1980), singer-songwriter and guitarist
        2. Paul McCartney (b. 1942), singer-songwriter and guitarist
        3. George Harrison (1943-2001), guitarist and songwriter
        4. Ringo Starr (b. 1940), drummer
      2. The Beatles brought “Beatlemania” to the United States in a 1964 tour (see HWM Figure 34.3).
      3. Devoting their energy to studio recordings, the Beatles later experimented with sounds and styles that could not be duplicated live.
      4. Albums, such as Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), embraced a wide variety of styles.
    6. Other rock music of the sixties
      1. The Beatles’ American tour began the “British Invasion,” which featured a number of other groups, such as the Rolling Stones.
      2. Some blues-based groups were influenced by earlier figures such as Robert Johnson.
      3. Virtuosos on the electric guitar created an enormous sensation.
        1. Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970)
        2. Eric Clapton (b. 1945) from the band Cream
      4. A wide variety of sounds emerged, including:
        1. California style-The Beach Boys
        2. Heavy metal-Steppenwolf
        3. Hard rock-Led Zeppelin and Aerosmith
        4. Acid rock-Jefferson Airplane
        5. Avant-garde rock-Frank Zappa
      5. The youth-oriented lyrics often expressed disillusionment with society.
    7. Folk and protest music
      1. A new style of popular music arose with ties to folk traditions; it became generally known as folk music.
      2. Groups often performed new songs in folk style along with genuine folk songs.
      3. Folk music was deliberately simple, featuring one or more singers with guitar.
      4. Audiences were encouraged to join in the singing.
      5. Folk songs were written to support social causes, such as We Shall Overcome for the Civil Rights Movement.
      6. Prominent writers and singers from the 1940s include:
        1. Woody Guthrie (1912-1967)
        2. Pete Seeger (b. 1919), the stepson of Ruth Crawford Seeger
      7. New voices emerged in the 1960s struggles for civil rights and against the Vietnam War, including Joan Baez (b. 1941).
      8. Bob Dylan (b. 1941)
        1. He voiced protests through songs such as Blowin’ in the Wind (1962).
        2. He combined folk styles with simple guitar harmonies, a rough voice, blues harmonica, and sharp-witted poetry.
        3. By the mid-sixties, Dylan used an electric guitar, bringing together folk and rock traditions.
    8. Soul
      1. Soul was the leading African-American tradition in the 1960s.
      2. It applied the intense expression, melismas, and ecstatic vocalizations of gospel singing to songs on love, sex, and other secular subjects.
      3. Soul was closely associated with the struggle for African-American equality.
      4. The leading performers included:
        1. Ray Charles (1930-2004) (see HWM Figure 34.4)
        2. James Brown (b. 1928), the “King of Soul”
        3. Otis Redding (1941-1967)
        4. Aretha Franklin (b. 1942)
    9. Motown
      1. Motown was a Detroit-based record company (the Mo-tor City).
      2. The sounds of Motown dominated the soul charts of the 1960s.
      3. Motown was intended to appeal to both black and white audiences.
      4. Motown produced a steady flow of well-groomed groups, including the Supremes and the Temptations.
      5. Motown also gave a start to figures such as Stevie Wonder (b. 1950) and Michael Jackson (b. 1958).
    10. Latino Americans produced styles using traditions of Central or Latin America.
      1. Tex-Mex, emanating from Texas and the southwestern United States, combined Mexican mariachi music with American country music.
      2. Salsa emerged in the 1960s, a product of New York City and Puerto Rico.
      3. Salsa mixes Cuban dance styles with jazz, rock, and Puerto Rican elements.
        1. A typical ensemble includes ten to fourteen members on vocals, piano, Cuban percussion, bass, and brass.
        2. Each instrument plays a distinctive rhythm, forming a driving dance beat.
      4. Tito Puente (1923-2000) was a leading figure of salsa.
  3. Broadway and Film Music
    1. Musicals
      1. Musicals continued established traditions, avoiding many of the newer trends in popular music.
      2. Most shows were collaborations, including:
        1. Composer Richard Rodgers (1902-1979) with lyricists Lorenz Hart (1895-1943) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960)
        2. Composer Frederick Loewe (1904-1988) with lyricist Alan Jay Lerner (1918-1986)
      3. Some of Broadway’s greatest composers from before the war continued to be productive.
        1. Irving Berlin: Annie Get Your Gun (1946) and Call Me Madam (1950)
        2. Cole Porter: Kiss Me Kate (1948)
      4. Rodgers and Hammerstein produced some of the most successful shows of the era.
        1. Oklahoma! (1943)
        2. Carousel (1945)
        3. South Pacific (1949)
        4. The King and I (1951)
        5. The Sound of Music (1959)
      5. Oklahoma! not only enjoyed a record-breaking run, but established a new highpoint in drama, music, and dance (see HWM Figure 34.5).
      6. Leonard Bernstein had a large impact on Broadway.
        1. He was initially known as a classical composer and performer, and as the principal conductor of the New York Philharmonic.
        2. His Broadway career began with On the Town (1944).
        3. His sensational West Side Story (1957) is a retelling of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.
        4. In West Side Story, Bernstein employs a variety of styles, including Afro-Caribbean dances, jazz, and Tin Pan Alley melodies in AABA format.
      7. Later Broadway musicals adapted new styles.
        1. Fiddler on the Roof (1964), by Jerry Bock, evoked Jewish folk music.
        2. Hair (1967), by Galt MacDermot, mixes rock styles with Broadway.
    2. Film music
      1. Film music styles diversified in the postwar years.
      2. Miklós Rósza (1907-1995) explored musical styles ranging from film noir to mock-ancient for historical epics like Ben Hur (1959).
      3. Alex North (1910-1991) used jazz in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951).
      4. Leonard Bernstein used a dissonant style in On the Waterfront (1954).
      5. Bernard Herrmann (1911-1975) collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock and used a consistently dissonant style in Psycho (1960).
      6. Italian composer Ennio Morricone (b. 1928) created a new pop-oriented Western sound for scores such as The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1967).
      7. Ethnic sounds from other countries were used in films, such as Zorba the Greek (1964), with music by Mikis Theodorakis.
      8. Electronic music was also used in film scores.
      9. Popular music was a strong element in postwar movies.
        1. David Raksin (1912-2004) made a great sensation with his jazz-inspired score to Laura (1944).
        2. Rock music made a strong impact beginning in the late 1950s.
        3. The Beatles’ A Hard Day’s Night (1964) was a successful movie and a successful soundtrack, setting a model for future films.
  4. Jazz
    1. Postwar developments
      1. New styles emerged, and older styles continued to be performed.
      2. There developed growing consciousness of jazz history and a desire to preserve it.
        1. By 1970, jazz had developed its own classical repertoire.
        2. Beginning in the 1950s, jazz ensembles were formed in schools.
      3. Jazz was increasingly regarded as music that demanded concentrated listening.
      4. Most jazz performers were still African American, but many were white, and the audiences were predominantly white.
      5. Big bands declined and were replaced by smaller ensembles called combos.
    2. Bebop
      1. A new style of jazz called bebop or bop emerged in the early 1940s.
      2. Bebop was built around virtuosic soloists featured in combos.
      3. The style originated in New York, where big band soloists would meet in clubs after leaving their regular engagements and pit their skills against each other.
      4. Characteristics
        1. It was rooted in standards of the swing era.
        2. It added extreme virtuosity and harmonic and rhythmic complexities.
        3. The focus was on soloists and improvisation.
      5. Typical combo
        1. Rhythm section: piano, drums, bass
        2. One or more melody instruments: trumpet, sax, or trombone
      6. Prominent bebop musicians include:
        1. Charlie “Bird” Parker (1920-1955), saxophone
        2. Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993), trumpet
        3. Miles Davis (1926-1991), trumpet
        4. John Coltrane (1926-1967), saxophone
        5. Thelonious Monk (1917-1982), piano
    3. Anthropology (NAWM 159)
      1. Composers: Parker and Gillespie (see HWM Figure 34.6)
      2. Anthropology is a contrafact.
        1. A new melody is composed over the chord progression from Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm.
        2. Contrafacts were major sources for new bebop compositions.
      3. The NAWM recording is from a live broadcast.
      4. Performers improvise from an abbreviated score called a lead sheet.
      5. The performance is characterized by short, rapid bursts of notes creating an unpredictable melody.
      6. Form
        1. The lead melody, called the head, is AABA and is played in unison at the beginning and end of the song.
        2. After the head, Parker plays three choruses (statements of the AABA harmonic progression).
        3. Gillespie then solos for three choruses.
        4. Powell on piano plays two additional choruses.
        5. Parker and Gillespie alternate with the drums for two choruses.
        6. The piece ends with a final statement of the head.
    4. After bebop
      1. New jazz styles were explored in the 1950s.
      2. Cool jazz
        1. Miles Davis developed a more relaxed jazz style.
        2. The Modern Jazz Quartet and Dave Brubeck (b. 1920) took up the style.
        3. Cool jazz returned the composer-arranger to a prominent role.
      3. Hard bop, dominated by drummers, focused on the percussive side of jazz.
        1. Kenny Clarke
        2. Max Roach
        3. Art Blakey
      4. Modal jazz
        1. It featured slowly unfolding melodies over stable modal harmonies.
        2. Miles Davis explored this style as well.
      5. Free jazz
        1. Ornette Coleman (b. 1930) and his quartet introduced this radical new jazz language.
        2. He moved away from jazz standards and familiar tunes.
        3. The style is built on melodic and harmonic gestures, new sounds, atonality, and improvisations on free forms.
      6. Avant-garde jazz
        1. The style is based on very fast playing, motivic development, new sonorities, and greater dissonance and density of sound.
        2. John Coltrane developed this style.
  5. The Classical Tradition
    1. Postwar developments
      1. The performance and study of classic music became even more pronounced.
      2. Some composers attempted to preserve some aspect of tradition.
      3. Other composers focused on creating something new.
    2. The university as patron
      1. Many composers were employed as teachers at colleges and universities.
      2. At these institutions, composers had ready access to performers and venues.
      3. Academic freedom allowed a vast range of styles, from traditional to experimental.
      4. The safety of the ivory tower allowed some composers to isolate themselves from the public.
      5. A number of refugee composers taught at universities, including:
        1. Schoenberg at the University of California, Los Angeles
        2. Milhaud at Mills College in Oakland, California
        3. Paul Hindemith at Yale
      6. Walter Piston, student of Boulanger, encouraged a neoclassic style at Harvard.
      7. Roger Sessions and Milton Babbitt at Princeton focused on the styles of Schoenberg and Webern.
  6. Composers Using Traditional Media
    1. Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992) (see HWM Figure 34.7)
      1. Messiaen is the most important French composer born in the twentieth century.
      2. An organist, he became professor of harmony at the Conservatoire in 1941.
      3. His students after the war include:
        1. Pierre Boulez
        2. Karlheinz Stockhausen (b. 1928)
        3. Luigi Nono (b. 1924)
      4. Works
        1. Messiaen composed works on religious subjects.
        2. Several are for organ.
      5. Messiaen notated birdsongs and used them in his compositions.
      6. Harmony
        1. He used scales that have limited transpositions, such as whole-tone and octatonic.
        2. Such scales do not create a strong desire for resolution.
      7. Rhythm and meter
        1. Rhythms create a sense of duration, not meter (see HWM Example 34.1).
        2. Messiaen used added values, the addition of small durational value to produce units of irregular length.
        3. He also used nonretrogradable rhythms, which are the same forward and backward.
    2. Quatuor pour la fin du temps (Quartet for the End of Time, 1941), first movement of Liturgie de cristal (Crystal Liturgy; see NAWM 160 and HWM Example 34.1)
      1. Background
        1. Messiaen was interned at a prisoner-of-war camp in Silesia.
        2. The work is set for violin, clarinet, cello, and piano, instruments played by fellow prisoners (he played piano).
        3. The work was performed for their fellow prisoners.
      2. Meaning
        1. The title refers to the Apocalypse, which will bring about the end of time and the beginning of eternity.
        2. The work is religious, even though there is no text.
        3. Messiaen sought to create a sense of ecstatic contemplation in Liturgie de cristal.
      3. Messiaen preferred beautiful timbres, as heard in the high harmonics of the cello augmented by gentle birdcalls in the violin and clarinet and set over soft dissonances in the piano.
      4. The clarinet and violin play stylized birdcalls that change in unpredictable ways but do not develop.
      5. The cello constantly repeats a five-note sequence in high harmonics.
        1. These pitches are presented three times in a rhythmic pattern of fifteen durations.
        2. The pattern repeats every five and a half measures (measures 8, 13).
        3. The pattern combines two nonretrogradable rhythms; the first three durations and the remaining twelve are both palindromes.
        4. The rhythms are the same forward and backward, hence suggesting the unchangeable, the divine, and the eternal.
      6. Messiaen avoids movement towards resolution by repeating harmonies to create a sense of stasis or meditation.
        1. The piano has twenty-nine chords; the second chord cycle begins at the end of measure eight.
        2. The rhythmic pattern has seventeen durations; the second rhythmic cycle begins in measure six and repeats every thirteen beats thereafter.
    3. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976)
      1. One of England’s foremost composers, Britten studied at the Royal College of Music.
      2. Like Copland, he tempered modernism with simplicity and created a widely appealing idiom.
      3. He was deeply influenced by humanitarian concerns, which is reflected in his later music.
      4. Most of Britten’s choral works were created for amateur ensembles.
      5. Britten was homosexual, and his life partner was the tenor Peter Pears (1910-1986) (see HWM Figure 34.8).
        1. Britten wrote most of his tenor roles for Pears.
        2. Several of his operas have themes that relate to homosexuality, including Billy Budd (1950-51) and Death in Venice (1971-74).
      6. War Requiem (1961-62)
        1. Britten expressed his pacifism in this choral masterpiece.
        2. The work interweaves traditional Latin texts with poems by Wilfred Owen.
        3. The Latin texts are set for soprano soloist, chorus, boys’ choir, and full orchestra, while the poems are for tenor and baritone soloists with chamber orchestra.
        4. The English poems comment upon the Latin text.
    4. Peter Grimes (1944-45), final scene by Britten (NAWM 161)
      1. This opera established Britten’s reputation and became the first English opera since Purcell to achieve international recognition.
      2. The story of a fisherman who is driven to suicide by mobs can be seen as an allegory for the condition of homosexuals.
      3. The opening of the final scene
        1. The chorus of townspeople repeatedly calls out Peter’s name.
        2. Peter answers in a meandering recitative that includes a motive from an earlier scene.
        3. The only accompaniment is a foghorn pitched at E-flat.
      4. Ellen appears, and Peter sings a brief reprise of his love song in Act I.
      5. There is no music as Balstrode helps Peter put the boat out to sea.
      6. At the end, the indifference to Peter’s fate is conveyed through bitonality.
        1. Music representing the sea, including a haunting flute melody, is in C major.
        2. In A major, the townspeople reprise a hymnlike song about their daily routines heard at the opening of Act I.
        3. The report of a sinking boat is dismissed as a rumor.
    5. Samuel Barber (1910-1981)
      1. One of many composers who remained committed to tonality
      2. The Adagio for Strings, originally written for string quartet in 1936, expresses his tonal romanticism.
      3. He does incorporate modernist resources, such as the twelve-tone rows within a tonal framework in his Piano Sonata (1949).
      4. He was renowned for his vocal works.
    6. The Monk and His Cat from Hermit Songs by Barber (1952-53) (see NAWM 162 and HWM Example 34.2)
      1. Text
        1. The song cycle is based on texts of Irish monks and hermits.
        2. W. H. Auden translated the texts into English.
        3. The poem describes the contented lives of the scholar and cat, each focusing on his own work-theology and mouse control.
        4. Each of the five lines is punctuated in the middle like a psalm verse.
        5. The first sentence is repeated at the end.
        6. Barber treats the two halves of each sentence in a variety of ways (see the diagram in the commentary to NAWM 162).
      2. Music
        1. Open fifths in the bass create a medieval atmosphere and suggest the monk.
        2. Dissonant augmented unisons suggest the cat, either walking on the piano keys or pouncing on a mouse.
        3. This song is solidly in F major, although it features almost no consonant harmonies.
        4. Barber freely alters the meter to follow the accents of the text.
        5. The vocal melody often contradicts the implied meter in the piano.
        6. The vocal line is a decorated paraphrase of the piano’s chantlike melody.
    7. Alberto Ginastera (1916-1983)
      1. From Argentina, Ginastera is the most popular Latin American composer after Villa-Lobos.
      2. His career can be divided into three phases.
        1. “Objective nationalism” (to 1947): tonal music infused with traditional Argentine folk elements
        2. “Subjective nationalism” (1947-57): synthesis of native and international elements
        3. “Neo-expressionism” (after 1957): earlier traits combined with twelve-tone and avant-garde techniques
      3. His turn from nationalism towards more abstract music is typical of the era.
    8. Gunther Schuller (b. 1925)
      1. Some American composers who were versed in both jazz and classical music sought to merge the two in the 1950s and 1960s.
      2. Schuller, one of the most successful, called the combination “third stream.”
      3. Transformation (1957) transforms a pointillistic twelve-tone context into a full-blown modern jazz piece.
    9. Michael Tippett (1905-1998)
      1. English composer Tipett synthesized historical, ethnic, and non-Western styles.
      2. His use of rhythmic and metric independence is derived in part from Renaissance music.
      3. Javanese influences can be seen in several works.
        1. Piano Concerto (1953-55)
        2. Triple Concerto for violin, viola, and cello (1979)
  7. Serialism
    1. Many composers adopted twelve-tone methods after the war.
      1. Established composers, such as Stravinsky, Copland, and Ginastera, took up serialism.
      2. The system had its biggest impact on younger composers.
      3. In Germany, some composers adopted the system as a political rejection of Nazi and communist ideologies.
      4. The West German government encouraged these developments and sponsored courses in new music at Darmstadt.
        1. The ideas fostered at Darmstadt inspired musical experiments.
        2. Boulez and Stockhausen became the two principal composers.
      5. In the United States, university composers, free from the need to appeal to audiences, embraced serialism.
      6. Milton Babbitt became the leading serial composer and theorist in the United States (see HWM Source Reading, page 916).
      7. Total serialism began to be explored in the late 1940s.
        1. Composers applied the principles of Schoenberg’s tone rows to parameters other than pitch, such as durations, intensities, and timbres.
        2. Other new serial techniques were explored as well.
    2. Milton Babbitt (b. 1916) (see HWM Figure 34.11)
      1. Three Compositions for Piano (1947) is the first piece to apply serial principles to duration.
      2. The complexity of his approach can be seen in the opening measures of his Third String Quartet (1970; see HWM Example 34.3).
        1. There are eight layers, with each instrument having two (one arco, one pizzicato).
        2. At the beginning, each layer has its own row.
        3. The rhythm is serialized as well, which is articulated with dynamics (see HWM Example 34.3b).
    3. Pierre Boulez (b. 1925)
      1. Independent from Babbitt, Messiaen created several complex systems.
      2. Inspired, Boulez wrote the first European work of total serialism, Structures for two pianos (1952).
      3. Le marteau sans maitre (The Hammer without a Master, 1954, revised 1957)
        1. The work fuses the pointillist style and serial method with a sensitive musical rendition of the text.
        2. The work has nine movements centering on verses by the surrealist poet René Char.
        3. Each number has a different combination of instruments, as in Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire.
        4. The ensemble comprises alto flute, xylorimba, vibraphone, guitar, viola, and percussion instruments.
        5. The translucent sound suggests Balinese gamelan music.
        6. The contralto vocal line has wide leaps, glissandos, and some Sprechstimme.
        7. Despite the logic, the audience’s perception is of randomness.
  8. Nonserial Complexity and Virtuosity
    1. A new generation of performers responded to musical complexities.
      1. Championing new music, they were capable of playing subtle nuances with accuracy and technical virtuosity.
      2. Their abilities inspired composers to use complex systems other than serialism.
    2. Luciano Berio (1925-2003)
      1. Italian composer Berio created a series of works titled Sequenza, each for an unaccompanied solo instrument from flute to accordion.
      2. Each work was composed for a specific performer.
      3. Sequenza IV for piano (1965-66) (see HWM Example 34.4)
        1. The rapid gestures and sudden changes are typical of the work.
        2. The atonality, figurations, and textures resemble those of his earlier serial music.
        3. The sustain pedal allows open strings to continue sounding and to catch harmonics from other notes.
    3. Elliot Carter (b. 1908)
      1. American composer Carter also wrote for virtuoso performers.
      2. He used a complex, nonserial style with innovative rhythms and forms.
      3. Carter developed a technique known as metric modulation.
        1. Transitions from one tempo and meter to another are through intermediary stages that share aspects of both.
        2. The results are precise proportional changes in the value of a durational unit.
        3. Cello Sonata (1948) is Carter’s first work with this procedure.
      4. The String Quartet No. 2 (1959; see HWM Example 34.5).
        1. Each instrumental part has a distinct personality.
        2. The instruments are differentiated by their most prominent intervals.
        3. They are also distinguished by rhythms.
        4. The first violin effects the metric modulation.
        5. The result is a counterpoint of sharply differentiated lines.
  9. New Sounds and Textures
    1. In the postwar years, the search for new musical resources intensified, and composers turned to four avenues of exploration.
      1. Use of new instruments, sounds, and scales
      2. Incorporation of non-Western sounds and instruments
      3. Electronic music
      4. Music of texture and process
    2. John Cage (1912-1992)
      1. Cage’s long and influential career was characterized by a continuous effort to bring to music sounds that had been traditionally excluded.
      2. In the 1930s and 1940s, he wrote numerous works for percussion ensemble that included instruments such as tin cans and an electric buzzer.
      3. He invented the prepared piano.
        1. Various objects, such as pennies, screws, and plastic, are inserted between the strings of a piano.
        2. When the keyboard plays, a variety of percussive sounds are projected.
      4. Sonatas and Interludes (1946-48)
        1. The work contains twenty-six sonatas and four interludes.
        2. The sonatas are single movements in two repeated parts, as in Scarlatti sonatas, but without thematic returns.
        3. The pianist follows detailed instructions in preparing the piano in advance.
        4. Each movement explores a different set of timbres and figurations.
    3. Harry Partch (1901-1974)
      1. Partch sought out a wholly new system inspired by Chinese, Native American, Jewish, Christian, African, and rural American music.
      2. He developed a new scale with forty-three notes to the octave.
      3. He built new instruments that could play in this scale, including a gourd tree (see HWM Figure 34.9).
      4. He created a number of multimedia works in which these instruments accompany speaking and chanting voices and dancing.
    4. George Crumb (b. 1929)
      1. Crumb has masterfully created new sounds out of ordinary instruments and objects.
      2. Ancient Voices of Children (1970)
        1. This cycle has four songs on poems of Federico Garcia Lorca with two instrumental interludes.
        2. Unusual sound sources include toy piano, musical saw, harmonica, mandolin, Tibetan prayer stones, Japanese temple bells, and electric piano.
        3. Special effects are also obtained from the traditional instruments.
    5. Black Angels (1970) by Crumb (NAWM 163)
      1. The work was written as a protest to the horror of the Vietnam War.
      2. The image of a black angel represents a fallen angel; the work is divided into three parts.
        1. Fall from grace
        2. Spiritual annihilation
        3. Redemption
      3. Numerology plays a significant role, with an emphasis on the numbers seven and thirteen.
      4. A surrealistic character is created through the imaginative use of color.
        1. The string quartet is amplified electronically.
        2. Innovative string techniques are explored.
        3. Quartet members play a variety of percussion instruments and make vocal sounds, including ritualistic counting in several different languages.
      5. Images 4 and 5 are linked together.
        1. They are played without a break.
        2. They depict the dance of death based on the image of the devil playing the violin.
        3. Both quote phrases of Dies irae.
      6. Image 4: Devil-Music
        1. The first violin plays an intense cadenza.
        2. The musical material emphasizes a chord that includes the tritone.
        3. Dies irae is played with pedal tones accompanied by a tam-tam.
      7. Image 5: Danse macabre
        1. The second violin and viola create unusual colors.
        2. A motive from Saint-Saëns’s Danse macabre is quoted several times.
        3. The first violin and cello play Dies irae with unusual timbres that includes whistling.
  10. Asian Influences
    1. Instruments, sounds, and textures from Asia fascinated Western composers.
      1. Canadian composer Colin McPhee (1900-1964)
        1. He transcribed gamelan music for Western instruments.
        2. Tabuhtabuhan (1936) for orchestra draws upon Balinese materials.
      2. Henry Cowell
        1. His travels to Iran, India, and Japan led to works blending Asian and Western elements.
        2. His works include two concertos for the Japanese koto.
      3. Lou Harrison (1917-2003)
        1. He combined Asian and Western instruments.
        2. Harrison also wrote numerous works for traditional Javanese gamelan.
    2. Asian composers, such as Toru Takemitsu (1930-1996) from Japan, also linked Western and Asian traditions.
      1. In his early works, Takemitsu wrote for traditional Western instruments and within Western genres.
      2. In the 1960s, he began to combine the two traditions.
      3. November Steps (1967) is like a double concerto, combining a shakuhachi and biwa with a Western orchestra.
      4. Takemitsu used similar combinations in his film scores.
  11. Electronic Music
    1. Musique concrète
      1. Musique concrète works with recorded sound.
        1. The entire world of sound is potential material for music.
        2. The chosen sounds are manipulated and assembled into collages.
      2. Tape recorders, which had recently been developed, made it possible to record, amplify, transform, and arrange sounds.
      3. Pierre Schaeffer (1910-1995)
        1. He created the first major work using this technique, Symphonie pour un homme seul (Symphony for One Man).
        2. Schaeffer premiered the work in a 1950 radio broadcast.
    2. Electronic sounds
      1. Most electronic sounds are created by oscillators, invented in 1915.
      2. Early electronic instruments
        1. The Theremin was invented around 1920 by Lev Termen.
        2. The Ondes Martenot was invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot.
        3. Both instruments produced one pitch at a time and projected voicelike sounds capable of glissandos.
        4. They were featured in some orchestral works and film scores.
    3. Electronic studios
      1. Between 1951 and 1953, a number of major electronic studios were created.
        1. Columbia University in New York
        2. Cologne, Germany
        3. Milan, Italy
        4. Tokyo, Japan
      2. Most composers at these studios focused on producing sounds electronically and manipulating them through electronic devices and on tape.
      3. Gesang der Junglinge (Song of the Youths, 1955-56) by Stockhausen
        1. This work combines electronic sounds with a boy’s voice.
        2. It is the first major electronic piece to use multiple tracks.
        3. In concert, the various tracks were projected with loudspeakers placed around the audience.
      4. Poème electronique (Electronic Poem, 1957-58) by Varèse
        1. Poème electronique also combines electronic and recorded sounds.
        2. This eight-minute piece was composed for the 1958 Brussels Exposition.
        3. The music was played through 425 loudspeakers in a pavilion designed by Le Corbusier (see HWM Figure 34.10).
        4. Fifteen thousand people a day experienced this multimedia piece over a six-month period.
    4. Synthesizers
      1. Electronic sound synthesizers enabled composers to call on pitches from a music keyboard.
      2. Composers could control harmonics, waveform, resonance, and the location of sound sources with switches and knobs.
      3. The RCA Mark II Synthesizer was developed at the joint Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s (see HWM Figure 34.11).
      4. Robert Moog and Donald Buchla each developed simpler and more-compact synthesizers in the mid-1960s.
      5. After becoming commercially available in 1966, they were adopted by studios and composers around the world.
      6. Silver Apples of the Moon (1967) by Morton Subotnick (b. 1933)
        1. Created with the Buchla synthesizer, this work was the first electronic piece to be commissioned by a record company.
        2. It was designed to fill two sides of an LP.
      7. The Beatles and other pop musicians adopted the new synthesizers.
    5. Electronic music and performance
      1. The electronic medium gave composers total control of the music, bypassing human performers.
      2. The absence of performers hindered audiences’ acceptance of the medium.
      3. A number of works were created that combined prerecorded tape with live performers.
    6. Philomel (1964) by Milton Babbitt (NAWM 164)
      1. This work combines live performance with prerecorded tape and synthesized sounds.
        1. The tape alters recorded fragments of the singer and uses electronic sounds.
        2. The taped voice often answers the soloist by distorting her line or commenting like a Greek chorus.
        3. The voice sometimes employs Sprechstimme.
      2. The text is derived from an Ovid fable taken from Metamorphoses.
        1. Philomel is the sister of Procne, the queen of Thrace.
        2. Tereus, Procne’s husband and king of Thrace, rapes Philomel and cuts out her tongue so that she cannot tell what happened.
        3. Philomel weaves the story in a tapestry, and Procne gets revenge by feeding Tereus the butchered corpse of their son.
        4. Tereus pursues the two sisters, but the gods transform them into birds.
        5. Philomel, transformed into a nightingale, regains her voice just as this work begins.
      3. The composition is in three sections.
        1. Section 1: Philomel screams as she recalls the pain of her violation and runs through the forest in fear and confusion (this portion is NAWM 164).
        2. Section 2: Philomel seeks answers about her predicament.
        3. Section 3: Philomel sings a strophic lament joined in refrains by her taped voice.
      4. Interludes for tape and synthesized sounds alternate with the voice.
      5. Everything is worked out with serial procedures.
        1. The pitch-class E is central to the construction.
        2. The rows are manipulated in a way that allows E to become successively the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth pitch-class in the row.
      6. Word painting and imagery
        1. The opening pitch E matches the vowel that is being sung.
        2. Synthesized trills support the word “trilled.”
        3. Recorded birdsongs are added.
  12. Music of Texture and Process
    1. VarÌse’s concept of sound masses moving through musical space influenced several composers.
      1. The emphasis was on sound itself.
      2. Electronic sounds stimulated the invention of new sounds from conventional instruments and voices.
      3. Works contained striking sound combinations that created novel textures.
    2. Iannis Xenakis (1922-2001)
      1. Xenakis was a Greek composer who spent most of his life in France.
      2. An engineer and architect, he saw mathematics as fundamental to music.
      3. Metastaseis for orchestra (1953-54)
        1. Each string player has a unique part.
        2. At times, each has a glissando, moving slowly or quickly.
        3. Xenakis plotted the glissandos on a graph and transferred the lines to music notation (see HWM Figure 34.12).
    3. Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933), Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima (1960; NAWM 165)
      1. Polish composer Penderecki originally wrote this as an abstract work, but his added title and dedication helped make this his most famous piece.
      2. Threnody is scored for fifty-two string instruments.
        1. Each instrument has a unique part and is required to use unusual performance techniques.
        2. The unusual timbres delineate five sections.
      3. Section 1 has each instrument playing as high as possible.
      4. Section 2 (beginning in measure 6) features a variety of unusual sounds played as quickly as possible.
      5. Section 3 (beginning in measure 10) introduces sustained tones and quarter-tone clusters linked by glissandos (see HWM Example 34.6).
      6. Section 4 (beginning in measure 26) presents isolated pitches and various sound effects in canon.
      7. Section 5 (beginning in measure 56) reintroduces earlier sound effects and clusters that lead to a climactic fifty-two-note chord.
      8. Penderecki used similar sounds in other works.
        1. St. Luke Passion (1963-66)
        2. The Devils of London (1968), an opera
      9. In the mid-1970s Penderecki turned toward neoromanticism.
    4. György Ligeti (b. 1923)
      1. This Polish composer achieved international fame when three of his compositions were used in Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey.
      2. The music for all three works is in constant motion, but static harmonically and melodically, as heard in Atmosphères (1961).
        1. Atmosphères begins with fifty-six muted strings and a variety of wind instruments playing all the chromatic notes through a five-octave range.
        2. Instruments gradually drop out, leaving only the violas and cellos.
        3. Later, clusters of instruments are pitted against each other.
        4. At times he creates the effect of slowly moving masses of sound.
    5. In the wide spectrum of choices that composers have made, listeners are required to forego traditional expectations and engage each work as an experience of sound.
  13. The Avant-Garde
    1. The previously discussed composers are not strictly avant-garde.
      1. These composers intended for their works to be placed in the classic repertoire.
      2. They often drew upon the art music tradition, but with a new and distinctive personality.
      3. They continued the goals of modernism.
      4. Avant-garde composers, like Satie, challenged the concept of permanent classics and wrote music only for the present.
      5. This distinction lies in the purpose of the music, not the technique.
    2. John Cage
      1. Cage was the leading avant-garde composer of the postwar years (see HWM Figure 34.13).
      2. He argued against the museumlike preservation of music from the past.
      3. He did not seek to write works that expressed emotions, developed material, or had a logical unfolding of events.
      4. Influenced by Zen Buddhism, he created oppor-tunities for experiencing sounds as themselves, not as vehicles for the composer’s intentions (see HWM Source Reading, page 934).
      5. Three strategies to achieve this goal:
        1. Chance
        2. Indeterminacy
        3. Blurring boundaries between music, art, and life
    3. Chance music
      1. Some of the decisions normally made by a composer are left to chance.
        1. Such pieces do not convey the composer’s intentions.
        2. His approach varied from work to work.
      2. Music of Changes for piano (1951; Book I in NAWM 166)
        1. The title is taken from the ancient Chinese book of prophecy I-Ching (Book of Changes), which offers a method of divination by tossing coins.
        2. Cage devised charts for possible sounds, dynamics, durations, and tempos.
        3. The methods described in I-Ching were used to select the sounds of a given performance.
        4. As a result, sounds occur randomly.
    4. Indeterminacy
      1. Certain aspects of the music are unspecified.
        1. He drew the idea in part from a work by his friend Morton Feldman.
        2. The exact sound for Concert for piano and orchestra (1957-58) will vary from performance to performance.
        3. 4’33” (Four Minutes Thirty-Three Seconds, 1952) has the performers sit in silence for this amount of time, thereby allowing the environmental noises to constitute the music.
      2. In both of the above techniques, the listener is invited to hear sounds as sounds.
      3. Value judgments are irrelevant, and there can be no mistakes.
      4. Variations IV (1963) uses both indeterminacy and chance and can be combined with other activities, including activities of daily life.
      5. Musicircus (1967) has any number of musicians performing different music all at once, while the audience wanders freely.
    5. Other composers adopted indeterminacy.
      1. Earle Brown (b. 1926) in Available Forms I (1961) and II (1962)
      2. Stockhausen in Klavierst�cke XI (Piano Piece No. 11, 1956)
      3. Penderecki in Threnody
    6. Witold Lutoslawski (1913-1994)
      1. This Polish composer used indeterminacy selectively while maintaining ties to modernism.
      2. String Quartet (1964) specifies pitches and rhythms, but not the coordination of the parts.
      3. Symphony No. 3 (1983) applies this method with great subtlety.
    7. Consequences of indeterminacy
      1. New kinds of notation were developed.
      2. No two performances were exactly alike.
      3. It opened the door to the awareness that earlier music was not a rigidly defined, unchanging work.
    8. Performance art
      1. Performing an action as a work of art in a public place is called performance art.
      2. It appeared in the 1960s, spearheaded by Fluxus, a loose group of avant-garde artists in Europe and the United States.
      3. Composition 1960 No. 2 by La Monte Young instructs the performer to build a fire.
      4. Yoko Ono (b. 1933)
        1. Grapefruit (1964) is a collection of pieces aimed at the performer and observer.
        2. In Earth Piece (1963), the performer is asked to listen to the sound of the earth turning.
        3. She brought her approach to rock music, collaborating with John Lennon after their marriage in 1969.
      5. Korean-born Nam June Paik (b. 1932) created exhibits with multiple television sets that blended music, video, performance art, and sculpture.
  14. Quotation and Collage
    1. A number of composers quoted existing music, sometimes even creating a collage of multiple quotations.
      1. Modernist composers like Schoenberg and Stravinsky borrowed previously composed material.
      2. Postwar composers used older music to carry meanings that were not available by other means.
    2. Peter Maxwell Davies (b. 1934)
      1. This British composer borrowed from chant and English Renaissance music.
      2. By distorting the source material, he emphasized the gulf between modern times and the distant past.
      3. Taverner (1962-70), an opera on the life of the Renaissance composer, reworks the latter’s In Nomine.
    3. George Rochberg (b. 1918)
      1. American composer Rochberg had written mostly serial music.
      2. After the death of his son in 1964, he turned to writing works based on borrowed material.
      3. Nach Bach (After Bach, 1966) for harpsichord is a “commentary” on Bach’s Keyboard Partita No. 6 in E Minor, BWV 830.
    4. Lukas Foss (b. 1922) transforms music by Handel, Domenico Scarlatti, and Bach in his Baroque Variations (1967).
    5. George Crumb quotes the chant Dies irae and Schubert’s Death and the Maiden Quartet in Black Angels.
    6. Stockhausen borrowed music in several works, including Gesang der J�nglinge and Hymen (1967).
      1. Hymen incorporates many different national anthems in a setting for electronic sounds, voices, and instruments.
      2. The intention was not to interpret, but to present the familiar.
      3. Opus 1970, written for the Beethoven bicentenary, includes recognizable fragments of Beethoven’s works.
    7. Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia (Symphony, 1968-69) contains a rich collection of borrowed music.
      1. The scherzo incorporates most of Mahler’s scherzo to his Symphony No. 2.
      2. Superimposed on the Mahler are verbal and musical commentaries.
      3. Berio adds quotations from over one hundred other works.
  15. Band and Wind Ensemble Music
    1. A large repertoire of serious works was created for band in the postwar era.
    2. The wind band grew in popularity throughout the twentieth century.
      1. After Sousa, the most famous bandmaster was Edwin Franko Goldman (1878-1956).
      2. Along with his son, Richard Franko Goldman (1910-1980), he continued the tradition of outdoor concerts with nationally broadcast performances in New York’s Central Park.
      3. Bands became especially important in schools across the country.
      4. Band associations promoted the concert band for performing serious concert music.
      5. Goldman and others commissioned new band works that matched the seriousness of orchestral music.
      6. Several prominent composers wrote for concert band, including Schoenberg, Milhaud, and Hindemith.
    3. Wind ensemble
      1. In 1952, Frederick Fennell (1914-2005) founded the Eastman Wind Ensemble.
      2. A wind ensemble was a group dedicated solely to serious music.
      3. In a wind ensemble, each instrumental part became essential.
      4. A number of composers wrote serious works for the wind ensemble, including Persichetti, William Schuman, Copland, Penderecki, and Joseph Schwantner.
    4. Music for Prague 1968, introduction and fanfare by Karel Husa (NAWM 167)
      1. Husa was born in Prague and came to the United States after Communists assumed power in his native country.
      2. Music for Prague 1968 was inspired by the Soviet Union’s overthrow of Czechoslovakia’s liberal government.
      3. Originally composed for wind symphony and later arranged for orchestra, this work has four movements.
        1. Introduction and fanfare
        2. Aria
        3. Interlude for percussion only
        4. Toccata and chorale
      4. The central thematic idea is the first phrase of a fifteenth-century Czech chorale tune, You Who Are God’s Warriors.
        1. Smetana used the tune in two tone poems from Má Vlast.
        2. The chorale was a song of the Hussites, followers of religious reformer Jan Hus, who symbolized resistance to outside oppression.
        3. Employing cumulative form, fragments of the tune are developed before it is heard fully at the end.
        4. In the first movement, the first two measures of the tune appear in the brass (measures 74-76), but the tune remains incomplete as the movement ends.
      5. In the adagio, the timpani presents fragments of the chorale, with some distortion.
      6. At the fanfare (measure 35), the trumpets take notes from the timpani to create a four-note idea: D-E-flat-D-flat-C.
        1. This motive becomes the main material of the movement.
        2. Development of this motive leads to the climactic arrival of the first two measures of the chorale.
        3. The motive is transposed, and its retrograde becomes part of a twelve-tone row in the second movement.
      7. The material of the piccolo and flute solos at the beginning is drawn from the chorale or fanfare figure.
      8. A three-note motive (measures 3-4), also related to the fanfare, appears later in the movement.
      9. Other modernist methods
        1. Instruments sometimes have contradictory dynamics, allowing for chords to change as they sound.
        2. Dynamics sometimes become a virtual melody.
        3. Brass use a variety of mutes to create different colors.
        4. Alto saxophones play quartertones (measures 33-34).
        5. Indeterminate notation is used at the climax (measures 81-87).
      10. This work represents a number of trends from this chapter.
        1. The composer is a university composer; Husa taught at Cornell.
        2. A college ensemble commissioned the work.
        3. The work was composed in response to a political event-the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union.
        4. It employs borrowed material, a Czech hymn.
        5. Abstract procedures include twelve-tone methods, indeterminacy, and an all-percussion movement.
  16. New Classics
    1. The pop world has now established a classical repertoire.
      1. Music from the 1950s and 1960s are “golden oldies” on the radio.
      2. Broadway musicals are continuously revived.
      3. Jazz has been preserved on recordings, and classics are learned in school ensembles.
      4. Film music has begun to receive attention as well.
    2. Postwar art music has not fared as well.
      1. Some works have been established in the permanent repertoire.
      2. Other works are well known by the musical elite.
      3. For the most part, the musical experimentation of the era found no audience.
      4. Still, the techniques that were developed have opened up new doors.

Chapter 33. Between the World Wars: The Classical Tradition

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

Music in the classical tradition continued to diversify in style and concept between the world wars, as composers sought individual solutions to the common problem of finding a place in the crowded classical repertoire. In all nations and regions, music composition became increasingly-or perhaps only more overtly-tied to political concerns and ideologies. Government regulation of music was especially strong in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Some composers in the classical tradition-reacting to social and political pressures, to the economic crisis of the Depression, to their older modernist colleagues, or to the perceived loss of a listening public for modern music-sought to reconnect with a large audience, while others pursued new ideas with little concern for popularity. Throughout the Americas a growing number of composers won international reputations with music that represented their nations on the world stage. An experimental or “ultramodernist” tradition emerged in the United States alongside a growing nationalist trend, both representing assertions of independence from Europe. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Music, Politics, and the People
    1. Music became increasingly tied to politics.
      1. In the nineteenth century, some felt that music transcended politics.
      2. Even then, music could not escape its association with the social elite and nationalism.
      3. In the 1930s, the Soviet Union and Germany suppressed modernist music.
    2. Music in the United States
      1. During the Depression, composers were concerned about the gap between modernism and audiences.
        1. They began to compose in more accessible styles.
        2. They wrote music for films, theater, and dance, some of which addressed social issues.
        3. Music in a modern style was written for amateur performers.
      2. Composers in the Americas won international recognition with music that reflected their national heritage.
      3. In the United States, an ultramodernist tradition emerged as well.
    3. Most governments sponsored musical activities.
      1. Public schools increasingly included music in the curriculum.
      2. A teaching method by Zolt�n Kod�ly was adopted in schools across Europe and North America.
      3. Government-controlled radio in Europe employed musicians.
      4. The New Deal in the United States created programs for unemployed musicians.
  2. France
    1. Politics and musical life had long been intertwined in France.
    2. After World War I, nationalists argued that French music was classic, as opposed to the Romanticism of Germany.
      1. Neoclassicism became prevalent in France and was characterized by:
        1. Classical genres and forms
        2. Tonal centers, often created through neotonality
        3. Restrained emotions and the rejection of Romantic excess
      2. The definition of “classic” was debated.
        1. Conservatives, like d’Indy, saw it as meaning balance, order, and tradition.
        2. Leftist composers, like Ravel, saw it as encompassing the international and not merely the national.
    3. Les Six
      1. “Les Six” (The Six) was a group of six young composers who drew inspiration from Satie (see HWM Figure 33.1).
        1. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955)
        2. Darius Milhaud (1892-1974)
        3. Francis Poulenc (1899-1963)
        4. Germaine Tailleferre (1892-1983)
        5. Georges Auric (1899-1983)
        6. Louis Durey (1888-1979)
      2. They adopted neoclassicism but avoided political dichotomies.
      3. The group collaborated in several joint projects, but each went in an individual way.
        1. Durey never fully conformed to the doctrines.
        2. Tailleferre, the most neoclassic, drew upon Couperin and Rameau in her Piano Concerto (1923-24) and other works.
        3. Auric was the most taken with Satie’s avant-garde approach.
        4. Honegger, Milhaud, and Poulenc achieved the greatest success.
    4. Arthur Honegger
      1. Musical style
        1. Dramatic action and graphic gesture
        2. Short-breathed melodies
        3. Strong ostinato rhythms
        4. Bold colors
        5. Dissonant harmonies
      2. Pacific 231 (1923), a symphonic movement that creates the impression of a speeding locomotive, was hailed as a modernist masterpiece.
      3. King David (1923), an oratorio, established his international reputation.
        1. Honegger combines the tradition of amateur chorus with allusions to Gregorian chant, Baroque polyphony, and jazz.
        2. Neoclassicism can be seen in the use of pre-Romantic styles, traditional forms, and the prevailing diatonic language.
    5. Darius Milhaud
      1. Milhaud was extremely prolific and composed in a wide variety of genres.
      2. His works are stylistically diverse.
        1. Le boeuf sur la toit (The Ox on the Roof, 1919), a ballet, is comic.
        2. Christophe Colomb (1928), an opera-oratorio, is earnest.
        3. Sacred Service (1947) reflects Milhaud’s Jewish heritage.
      3. incorporated sounds from the Americas.
        1. La creation du monde (The Creation of the World, 1923), a ballet, features saxophones, ragtime syncopations, and the blues.
        2. Le boeuf sur la toit (The Bull on the Roof, 1919) and Saudades do Brasil (Souvenirs of Brazil, 1920-21) contain Brazilian folk melodies and rhythms.
      4. Saudades do Brasil also features polytonality, a technique that he employed in other works as well (see HWM Example 33.1).
      5. Although he absorbed neoclassicism, his openness to foreign influences ranging from Schoenberg to jazz set him apart from d’Indy and the others.
    6. Francis Poulenc
      1. Poulenc drew upon the Parisian popular chanson tradition found in cabarets and revues, thereby violating the strictures of d’Indy.
      2. His music can be graceful, witty, and satirical.
      3. A wide range of styles were employed by Poulenc in his instrumental works, including neoclassicism, song-influenced melodies, and mild dissonance.
      4. He excelled in vocal works, including sacred works and songs.
      5. Dialogues of the Carmelites (1956), a three-act opera, raises political issues in its depiction of the execution of the Carmelite nuns during the French Revolution.
  3. Germany
    1. During the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), political contentions were echoed in music.
    2. Nazis came into power in 1933.
      1. Modernist music was attacked for being decadent.
      2. People on the political left and Jews were banned from public life.
      3. Many leading musicians left the country.
    3. New Objectivity emerged in the 1920s.
      1. This was a trend against the emotional intensity and complexity of the late Romantics and the expressionism of Schoenberg and Berg.
      2. It used familiar elements borrowed from sources such as jazz, Classical, and Baroque music.
      3. Followers believed that music should be objective and widely accessible.
    4. Ernst Krenek (1900-1991)
      1. Jonny spielt auf (1927) exemplifies the ideals of New Objectivity.
        1. Krenek’s opera uses European and African-American jazz traditions.
        2. The opera was a success, but was attacked by Nazis for using African-American elements.
      2. Krenek later adopted the twelve-tone method and moved to the United States.
    5. Kurt Weill (1900-1950)
      1. Weill was also an advocate of New Objectivity.
      2. An opera composer, he sought to combine social commentary with entertainment for everyday people rather than the intellectual elite.
      3. Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny Opera, 1928)
        1. Another collaborative effort with Brecht, this opera is based on the libretto of John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera.
        2. Lotte Lenya, Weill’s wife, sang in the production and championed Weill’s works after his death (see HWM Figure 33.2).
        3. It parodies American songs and juxtaposes eighteenth-century ballad texts, European dance music, and American jazz.
        4. The work was an enormous international hit, but the Nazis banned it in 1933.
      4. Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny, 1930)
        1. Weill collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on this allegorical opera.
        2. Weill incorporates elements of popular music and jazz, which can be heard in the inclusion of jazz instruments in the pit orchestra.
        3. The story exposed the failures of capitalism.
      5. Weill came to the United States and composed Broadway musicals, where he continued to exhibit characteristics of New Objectivity.
    6. Music under the Nazis
      1. The Reich Chamber of Culture included a Reich Music Chamber, to which all musicians had to belong.
      2. Richard Strauss was the first president, but was forced to resign when he continued to collaborate with a Jewish librettist.
      3. Nazis stipulated that music should not be dissonant, intellectual, Jewish, or jazz-influenced.
      4. Nazis focused on performances of the German tradition, especially the music of Wagner.
    7. Carl Orff (1895-1982)
      1. Orff established an international reputation, despite remaining in Germany.
      2. He was not sympathetic toward the Nazi regime.
      3. His best-known work is Carmina burana (1936), for chorus and orchestra.
        1. The texts are medieval goliard songs.
        2. Orff employed a simple neomodal idiom.
        3. Drawing from Stravinsky and other sources, Orff created a pseudo-antique style using drones, ostinatos, harmonic stasis, and strophic repetition.
      4. Orff also developed methods and materials for teaching music in schools.
  4. Paul Hindemith (1900-1950)
    1. Significance
      1. Hindemith was one of the most prolific composers of the twentieth century.
      2. He was an important teacher and thought of himself as a practicing musician.
    2. The Weimar period
      1. He began composing in a late Romantic style.
      2. He then developed an individual expressionist style.
      3. Soon he adopted the aesthetics of New Objectivity.
        1. He composed seven works entitled Kammermusik (Chamber Music, 1922-27) that encompass a variety of forms, including neo-Baroque ritornello.
        2. These later works are neotonal.
      4. Gebrauchmusik (music for use)
        1. Hindemith was disturbed by the gulf between modern music and audiences.
        2. Gebrauchmusik was intended for young or amateur performers.
        3. The style was modern, the quality good, and the music challenging and rewarding to perform.
      5. Mathis der Maler (1934-35)
        1. Hindemith’s opera questioned the role of politics in the arts.
        2. He forged a symphony from the opera entitled Symphony Mathis der Maler (1933-34), his best-known work.
        3. The story is based on the life the artist Matthias Grünewald, who painted the Isenheim alterpiece (see HWM Figure 33.3).
        4. Grünewald struggles between his role in a rebellion and his art, perhaps an allegory for Hindemith’s own career.
        5. The Nazis banned the opera in 1936.
      6. Harmonic fluctuation
        1. Hindemith developed a neo-Romantic style for Mathis der Maler that uses harmonic fluctuation.
        2. Harmonic fluctuation is a harmonic method based on growing dissonance and eventual return to consonance (see HWM Example 33.2).
    3. Hindemith left Germany and settled in the United States; his later works include:
      1. Sonatas for almost every orchestral instrument
      2. Ludus tonalis (Tonal Play, 1942)
        1. This work for piano recalls Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier.
        2. It has twelve fugues, each centered on a different note in the chromatic scale.
      3. Symphonic Metamorphosis after Themes of Carl Maria von Weber (1943)
      4. Symphony in B-flat for band (1951)
    4. Un cygne (A Swan, 1939), from Six Chansons (NAWM 153)
      1. Six Chansons are settings of poems by Rainier Maria Rilke for a cappella chorus.
        1. Composed in Switzerland, these works are for amateur or school performers.
        2. In the tradition of the chanson, the text is set syllabically and with sensitive declamation.
      2. The first section is based on the first two lines of poetry.
        1. The first phrase suggests the gliding of a swan with a gentle melodic phrase over parallel fourth chords.
        2. The next two phrases vary these ideas.
        3. The second line begins with brief imitation (measures 5-7) and warmly supports the image of the loved one.
      3. The second section interweaves the two ideas of the first section.
        1. The opening idea returns (measures 11-14).
        2. The music expands with the reference to “our troubled soul.”
        3. The final phrase reprises the opening motive and the idea associated with the loved one.
      4. The harmony exemplifies the technique of harmonic fluctuation, which moves from relative consonant to dissonance and back to consonance.
  5. The Soviet Union
    1. The government controlled all aspects of the arts.
      1. Theaters, conservatories, concert halls, and other music institutions were nationalized.
      2. Concert programming was strictly regulated.
    2. During the relatively freer 1920s, two organizations were established.
      1. The Association for Contemporary Music sought to continue modernist trends established by Scriabin and others.
      2. The Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians, seeing the modernist tradition as being elitist, encouraged simple music with mass appeal.
      3. After Stalin came into power in 1929, dissent was quashed, and the two groups were replaced in 1933 by the Union of Soviet Composers.
    3. In 1934, a writers’ congress promulgated socialist realism as the ideal for Soviet arts.
      1. Realism was adopted for literature, drama, and painting.
      2. Works needed to portray socialism in a positive light.
      3. Music was created with some of these qualities:
        1. A relatively simple and accessible language
        2. Emphasis on melody, often drawn from folk styles
        3. Patriotic and inspirational subject matter
      4. “Formalism” was a derogatory term for interest in modernism and music for its own sake.
    4. Sergey Prokofiev (1891-1953)
      1. Prokofiev made an initial reputation as a radical modernist.
      2. He left Russia after the Revolution.
        1. He resided in North America and western Europe for almost two decades.
        2. During this time he composed solo piano works and concertos for his own performance.
        3. Among his commissioned works are the opera The Love for Three Oranges (1921), written for Chicago, and ballets for Diaghilev.
      3. Prokofiev returned to the Soviet Union in 1936 and fulfilled several Soviet commissions.
        1. Lieutenant Kijé (1934), originally for film and later arranged as an orchestral suite
        2. Romeo and Juliet (1935-36), a ballet
        3. Peter and the Wolf (1936), a narrated fairy tale for orchestra
        4. Alexander Nevsky (1938), a cantata drawn from film music
      4. When government control relaxed, Prokofiev turned to classical genres.
      5. The Piano Sonatas Nos. 6-8 (1939-44) and the Fifth Symphony are largely tonal, but contain some distinctive features of his earlier style.
      6. After World War II, Prokofiev was admonished for being a “formalist.”
    5. Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975) (see HWM Figure 33.4)
      1. Shostakovich was trained within the Soviet system.
      2. In the 1920s, he was aligned with the modernist composers.
      3. The First Symphony (1926) brought him international recognition.
      4. Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District
        1. The opera premiered in 1934 and was initially a great success.
        2. Stalin, however, was angered by its content and style.
        3. Shostakovich was criticized in the newspaper Pravda for his dissonances and lack of melody (see HWM Source Reading, page 879).
        4. The production was closed, and Shostakovich may have feared for his life.
    6. The Fifth Symphony (1937) received great acclaim.
      1. The symphony can be seen as a response to the criticism of his opera; the work was described as “a Soviet artist’s reply to just criticism.”
      2. The symphony conforms to social realism with its optimistic, populist outlook and its easily understood tonal language.
      3. Inspired by Mahler, the work encompasses a wide range of styles and moods.
      4. It is a heroic symphony in the vein of Beethoven and Tchaikovsky, with four movements.
        1. The dynamic opening movement, in sonata form, suggests a struggle.
        2. The scherzo-like allegretto adopts the jarring contrasts of a Mahler scherzo.
        3. The sorrowful slow movement evokes traditional Russian funeral music.
        4. The finale is boisterous, but the triumphal character can also be interpreted as false enthusiasm.
    7. The Fifth Symphony (1937), second movement (NAWM 154)
      1. The movement follows the traditional ABA of the classical scherzo.
      2. Section A is modified binary form.
        1. The material develops from a number of motives.
        2. Shostakovich provides strong contrasts of colors and styles, including a crude waltz and a boisterous military march.
      3. Section B, in a rounded binary form, features an elegant waltz theme played by a solo violin.
      4. The reprise of A alters the orchestration at the beginning, recalling the timbres of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5.
      5. The harmony contains many unexpected turns.
        1. The tonal areas seem to be more often asserted than established.
        2. The work seems to be neotonal music pretending to be tonal.
    8. Later works
      1. The Seventh Symphony (Leningrad, 1941), which deals programmatically with the defense of Leningrad against Hitler’s armies, won sympathetic audiences in the United States and Britain.
      2. Shostakovich was subject to the same crackdown that affected Prokofiev.
      3. He signed a number of his works with the notes D-E-flat-C-B (in German nomenclature, that is D-Es-C-H for Dmitri SCHostakovich).
  6. The Americas
    1. Several composers from the Americas gained international recognition between the wars.
      1. These composers created distinctive national styles.
      2. Sometimes their nationalism was linked with politics.
    2. Canada
      1. Musical life in Canada was similar to musical life in the United States.
      2. Concerts primarily presented the European classical repertoire.
      3. Professional orchestras were founded in major cities during the twentieth century, beginning with Quebec (1903) and Toronto (1906).
      4. Claude Champagne (1891-1965) was the first Canadian composer to achieve an international reputation.
        1. He learned French-Canadian fiddle tunes and dances in his youth.
        2. As a young man, he was deeply influenced by Russian composers.
        3. He studied in Paris (1921-28), where he encountered Renaissance polyphony and the music of Fauré and Debussy.
        4. He developed a distinctive national style in Suite canadienne (Canadian Suite, 1927) for chorus and orchestra, using elements from French-Canadian folk music and polyphonic French chansons.
        5. Dance villageoise (Village Dance, 1929), his best-known work, evokes both French-Canadian and Irish folk styles.
    3. Brazil
      1. Art music had been established in Brazil by the end of the nineteenth century with the operas of Gomes and the works of several others.
      2. Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) was the most important Brazilian composer.
        1. He blended traditional Brazilian elements with modernism.
        2. Between 1923 and 1930, he spent most of his time in Paris, where he established himself as Latin America’s most prominent composer.
        3. Returning to Brazil in 1930, he promoted music in schools through choral singing.
        4. He has been criticized for supporting the Brazilian dictatorship.
      3. Choros (1920-28), a series of fourteen pieces, is among Villa-Lobos’s most characteristic works.
        1. The title is a type of popular ensemble music in the streets of Rio de Janeiro.
        2. The works are for various media from solo guitar or piano to orchestra with chorus.
        3. Each blends a vernacular style of Brazil with modernistic techniques.
      4. Bachianas brasileiras (1930-45), a set of nine works, pays homage to Bach.
        1. Each is a suite of two to four movements.
        2. These neoclassic works combine elements of Baroque and Brazilian folk music.
        3. Villa-Lobos’s most famous work is Bachianas brasileiras No. 5 (1938-45) for solo soprano and eight cellos.
    4. Mexico
      1. Beginning in 1921, the Mexican government promoted a new nationalism in the arts that drew on native Indian cultures.
      2. Diego Rivera and other artists were commissioned to paint murals in public buildings that illustrated Mexican life (see HWM Figure 33.5).
      3. Carlos Chávez (1899-1978) was the first composer associated with the new nationalism.
        1. He served as conductor of Mexico’s first professional orchestra and director of the national conservatory.
        2. He composed two ballets on Aztec scenarios.
        3. Sinfonia india (Indian Symphony, 1935-36) uses Indian melodies in a modernist idiom.
        4. Sinfonia romantica (Symphony No. 4, 1953) is not so overtly nationalist.
      4. Silvestre Revueltas (1899-1940)
        1. Revueltas studied in Mexico and the United States.
        2. His music combines folklike melodies and popular music with a modernist idiom.
    5. Sensemayá (1938) by Silvestre Revueltas (NAWM 155)
      1. This symphonic work is a song without words based on a poem by the Cuban poet Nicolás Guillén.
      2. The poem tells of an African-Cuban magical rite in which a snake is symbolically killed.
      3. Revueltas set the poem to a melody, and then used the melody (without the words) throughout the work.
      4. The work can be seen in four sections (see diagram in the NAWM 155 commentary).
      5. Section 1 (measures 1-87)
        1. Throughout this section, percussion instruments play a pattern of eight eighth notes in 7/8 meter; the pattern suggests the name “sen-se-ma-yá.”
        2. The bass clarinet and bassoon play ostinatos that are passed on to other instruments.
        3. The snake theme enters in the tuba (measures 9-20) and is later picked up by other instruments.
        4. The first four stanzas of the melody alternate between the strings and trombones, beginning in measure 46.
        5. An interlude closes the first section and presents a new theme representing man (trumpet, E-flat clarinet, and flute, measures 76-84).
      6. Section 2 (measures 88-99)
        1. The dramatic confrontation with the snake is depicted, as suggested by the fifth stanza.
        2. The “sen-se-ma-yá” rhythm is altered, and the trombones play the new rhythmic figure.
      7. Section 3 (measures 100-149)
        1. The material, which is similar to that of the first section, is frequently interrupted by a single measure of 7/16 with rapid sixteenth-note figures.
        2. The struggle between snake and man is suggested.
        3. The theme of man reappears (measure 119).
        4. The trombones state the melody for the sixth stanza (measures 133-142).
        5. An interlude pictures violent blows to the snake (measure 142) and the writhing snake’s death agony (measure 145).
      8. Section 4 (measures 150-172)
        1. The celebratory postlude presents the last stanza of the poem.
        2. Earlier themes return and build to a powerful climax.
  7. The United States
    1. New musical links developed between the United States and Europe.
      1. Many European composers fled to the United States and became teachers.
      2. American composers went to France instead of Germany for study abroad.
      3. Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979) taught classes in Paris for America’s leading composers.
    2. Two trends developed among American composers during this time.
      1. An experimental trend focused on new musical resources.
      2. An Americanist trend blended nationalism with a new populism.
      3. Both drew upon European tradition but asserted independence as well.
    3. Edgard Varèse (1883-1965)
      1. Born in France, Varèse studied at the Schola Cantorum and Conservatoire.
      2. He was influenced by Debussy, Schoenberg, and Stravinsky.
      3. He moved to New York in 1915 and there wrote his first major work, Amériques (1918-21).
      4. Varèse created a series of works that sought to liberate composition from musical conventions, such as Intégrales (1924-25) and Ionisation (for percussion only, 1929-31).
      5. He believed that sounds were the essential structural components of music, and he considered all sounds acceptable as raw material.
        1. He imagined music as spatial, akin to an aural ballet.
        2. Sound masses-bodies of sound characterized by a particular timbre, register, rhythm, and melodic gesture-moved through music space.
        3. These sound masses change and interact.
      6. A great variety of percussion instruments are treated as equals to strings and winds.
      7. For Varèse, form is not something you start with but the result of the working out of material.
      8. Seeking new sounds, he turned to electronic sound generation and the tape recorder in two works created in the 1950s:
        1. Déserts (1950-54) for winds, percussion, and tape
        2. Poème electronique (1957-58) for tape
    4. Henry Cowell (1897-1965)
      1. Raised in California, Cowell had little training in traditional music.
      2. Many of his early pieces are experimental works for piano.
        1. The Tides of Manaunaun (ca. 1917) uses tone clusters sometimes created by pressing his fist or forearm on the keys.
        2. The Aeolian Harp (1923) has the player strum the piano strings while holding down chords on the keyboard.
        3. The Banshee (1925) requires an assistant to hold down the damper pedal while the pianist applies a variety of techniques to the strings.
      3. He summarized his ideas in New Musical Resources (1930).
      4. Eclectic in his choices, Cowell incorporated American, Irish, and Asian elements in his works.
      5. Cowell promoted music of others through concerts and the periodical New Music.
    5. Ruth Crawford Seeger (1901-1953) (see HWM Figure 33.6)
      1. Ruth Crawford was the first woman to win a Guggenheim Fellowship in music.
      2. She was most active as a composer between 1924 and 1933 in Chicago and New York.
      3. She studied with musicologist Charles Seeger, and they married in 1932.
      4. Seeger developed theories about modern techniques that Crawford refined and applied to her music.
      5. While in New York, she experimented with serial techniques, applying them to parameters other than pitch.
      6. She later believed that preserving folk songs was a greater contribution to the nation’s musical life than writing more modernist works and began editing American folk songs from field recordings.
      7. The String Quartet (1931) is Crawford’s best-known work.
        1. In the first movement, four thematic ideas unfold in dissonant counterpoint.
        2. The second movement develops a short motive through counterpoint and convergence.
        3. The third movement features all four instruments sustaining long tones and taking turns coming to the foreground with crescendos.
    6. String Quartet, finale by Ruth Crawford (see NAWM 156 and HWM Example 33.3)
      1. The entire musical fabric is repeated in retrograde transposed up a semitone (measures 58-59 are the pivot point).
      2. Two-part counterpoint pits the first violin against the other instruments.
        1. The first violin begins with a single note and then continues adding one note at a time, always getting softer, until it reaches twenty-one notes.
        2. The other instruments, playing muted, interject phrases of twenty notes and then subtract one note at a time, always getting louder, until they’re playing just one note.
        3. The first violin plays a variety of rhythmic values, but the lower strings play only eighth notes.
        4. The pitches of the lower strings are derived from a ten-note series, in which the notes are rotated (see diagram in commentary to NAWM 156).
  8. Aaron Copland (1900-1990) (see HWM Figure 33.7)
    1. Biography
      1. Because of his Jewish faith, homosexuality, and leftist politics, he was somewhat of an outsider.
      2. He was one of the first American composers to study with Nadia Boulanger.
      3. He still became the most important central American composer of his generation.
    2. Compositional styles
      1. Jazz and strong dissonance play a part in his early works:
        1. Music for the Theatre (1925)
        2. Piano Concerto (1927)
      2. He developed a new style by reducing his modernist technique and combining it with simple textures and diatonic melodies and harmonies.
        1. El Salón Mexico (1932-36), an orchestra suite, incorporates Mexican folk songs.
        2. The ballets Billy the Kid (1938) and Rodeo (1942) use cowboy songs.
        3. He wrote the opera The Second Hurricane (1936) for schools.
        4. Film scores, including Our Town (1940), represent music “for use.”
    3. Appalachian Spring (1943-44) (see NAWM 157 and HWM Example 33.4)
      1. The ballet was written for Martha Graham, a leading modern dancer and choreographer.
      2. The story centers on a wedding in rural nineteenth-century Pennsylvania.
      3. The music won the Pulitzer Prize.
      4. Copland originally wrote this work for an ensemble of thirteen instruments, and later arranged it for full orchestra.
      5. Allegro and presto sections
        1. The changing meters, offbeat accents, and sudden changes of texture show the influence of Stravinsky.
        2. The diatonic melodies and harmonies, syncopation, and guitarlike chords give it an American character.
        3. Many passages combine consonant and dissonant notes of the diatonic scale, which has been called pandiatonicism.
        4. The rapid figures of the presto suggest country fiddling (measure 18).
        5. Counterpoint and motivic relationships link the work to European traditions.
      6. The Meno mosso (measure 138) produces a characteristic sound that suggests the open spaces and rugged people of frontier America.
        1. Leaps of fourths and fifths
        2. Wide spacing of chords
        3. Diatonic melodies
        4. Lightly dissonant diatonic chords
        5. A recollection of the beginning of the ballet (measure 151) includes superimposed tonic and dominant or tonic and subdominant triads.
      7. Variations on the Shaker hymn Simple Gifts (measure 171)
        1. The tune changes little in the successive variations.
        2. Variation one is for clarinet in A-flat major with simple accompaniment.
        3. Variation two (measure 191) is similar, a step lower, with the melody in the oboe and bassoon.
        4. Variation three, given to trombones and violas and later treated canonically, omits the second half of the tune.
        5. Variation four begins with the tune in the trumpet accompanied by the trombone.
        6. The final variation presents the two halves of the tune in reverse order.
      8. Copland’s style has been widely imitated and has become the quintessential musical sound of America, heard often in film and television.
    4. Later works by Copland
      1. The Third Symphony (1946) continues to exhibit his American idiom.
      2. He later adopts the twelve-tone method in some of his works.
        1. Piano Quartet (1950)
        2. Piano Fantasy (1957)
        3. Inscape (1967)
      3. Through these stylistic changes, Copland maintained an artistic identity.
  9. Other Americanists
    1. William Grant Still (1895-1978) (see HWM Figure 33.8)
      1. Still’s musical influences were diverse.
        1. Arranger for W. C. Handy
        2. Studies with Chadwick and Varèse
      2. He earned many “firsts” for an African-American musician:
        1. First to conduct a major orchestra in the United States (Los Angeles Philharmonic, 1936)
        2. First to have an opera produced by a major U. S. company (Troubled Island at New York’s City Center, 1949)
        3. First to have an opera televised over a national network
      3. He composed over 150 compositions in the classical tradition, many of which incorporated American idioms.
    2. Afro-American Symphony, first movement (1930; NAWM 158)
      1. This was the first symphonic work by an African-American composer to be performed by a major American orchestra.
      2. It has the traditional four movements.
        1. First movement sonata form
        2. Second movement slow
        3. Third movement scherzo
        4. Fourth movement fast
      3. Although not explicitly programmatic, each movement is a character sketch linked to some verses from a poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar.
      4. Originally each movement had a subtitle: Longings, Sorrows, Humor, and Aspirations.
      5. The symphony incorporates African-American elements.
        1. Call and response
        2. Syncopations
        3. Varied repetition of short melodic or rhythmic ideas
        4. Jazz harmonies
        5. Dialogue between groups of instruments, as in a jazz arrangement
        6. Instrumental timbres common in jazz, such as trumpets and trombones muted with Harmon mutes
      6. The opening movement blends sonata form with an ABCBA form.
        1. A brief introductory melody in the English horn opens the symphony.
        2. The first theme, in the trumpet, has a twelve-bar blues structure in classic AAB form.
        3. The transition (measure 33) develops motives from the first theme.
        4. The second theme (measures 45-67), in G major, suggests a spiritual and is in an ABA’ form.
        5. The development (beginning in measure 68) fragments and develops thematic material in a European manner.
        6. The recapitulation brings back the themes in reverse order (measures 104 and 114 respectively).
        7. The second theme returns in A-flat minor, and the first in A-flat major.
        8. A brief coda suggests the introduction.
    3. Virgil Thomson (1896-1989)
      1. Thomson was a composer and a critic for the New York Herald Tribune.
      2. He studied with Nadia Boulanger.
      3. He was greatly influenced by Satie.
      4. He rejected modernism’s complexities and the obsession with past classical traditions.
      5. Thomson collaborated with Gertrude Stein on the opera Four Saints in Three Acts (1927-28)
        1. The libretto, based on the life of St. Teresa of Avila, seems absurdist.
        2. Thomson’s music reflects the nature of the text and mixes dance rhythms with familiar musical styles and diatonic chords.
        3. The result is often wild, with surprising juxtapositions.
      6. Thomson’s other music is more overtly American.
        1. Variations on Sunday School Tunes (1926-27) for organ and the Symphony on a Hymn Tune (1928) evoke nineteenth-century hymnody.
        2. The Mother of Us All (1947), another operatic collaboration with Stein, is based on the life of women’s suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony.
        3. He composed a number of film scores using American elements, and claimed that Copland borrowed the Americanist style from him.
  10. Politics and Art Music
    1. Today’s audiences have largely forgotten the political circumstances in which music of this chapter was created.
      1. Works such as Poulenc’s sonatas, Orff’s Carmina burana, Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony, and Copland’s ballets now stand on their own without regard to politics.
      2. In some works from the Soviet Union, the insistence on immediate wide appeal has made these works popular today.
    2. The postwar depoliticizing of art music has led historians to focus more on the music and less on the circumstances of its creation.
    3. The most important aspect of music between the wars is its great variety, which is evident in the diverse musical styles of composers in the United States.

Chapter 32. Between the World Wars: Jazz and Popular Music

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

The period between World Wars I and II saw a remarkable series of changes in musical life and continued diversification in musical styles. The spread of phonographs, improved recording techniques, and the new technologies of radio and sound films fostered a mass market for music in sound as well as in notation. Classical concert music and opera remained the most prestigious musical traditions, but the varieties of popular music were better known and usually more lucrative. Especially prominent were trends from the United States, notably jazz. Music, always an accompaniment to “silent” movies, became an integral part of sound films, and composers of opera, classical concert music, musicals, and popular songs all found a place in the movie industry. Styles of classical music grew ever more varied, as composers responded in individual ways to musical trends from modernism to the avant-garde, and to political and economic conditions in their respective nations. After examining the historical background to the period, we will focus in this chapter on developments in popular music between the wars, especially in the United States. In the next chapter, we will address the classical tradition. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Musical Changes
    1. Phonographs, radios, and movies fostered a mass market for popular music.
      1. The varieties of popular music, especially jazz, were lucrative.
      2. Music, both classical and popular, became an integral part of sound films.
      3. Movie musicals were popular.
    2. Classical concert music and opera remained the most prestigious types of music.
      1. Styles of classical music grew more varied.
      2. Composers continued to respond to both modernism and the avant-garde.
  2. Between the Wars
    1. World War I left Western society profoundly disillusioned.
      1. New technology had produced staggering losses; over nine million soldiers were killed.
      2. The economies of many countries were ruined.
      3. A worldwide influenza epidemic killed twenty million people in 1918.
      4. Music, especially popular music, provided an escape.
      5. Interest also grew in music composed before 1750.
    2. Changes in European nations
      1. Several of the traditional empires were brought to an end, and a number of European countries gained independence.
      2. Radical Marxist revolutionaries created the Soviet Union in 1917.
      3. Other dictatorships were established in Italy, Spain, and Germany.
      4. Anti-Semitic laws in Germany forced many Jewish writers, composers, and scholars to emigrate.
    3. Written documentation from Mesopotamia
      1. While European countries faced economic hardships, the United States and Canada enjoyed a financial boom.
      2. The stock market of 1929 sparked a worldwide depression.
      3. Germany invaded Poland in 1939, beginning World War II.
      4. Women gained the right to vote in several nations, including the United States, and they had greater access to careers.
    4. The arts
      1. The 1920s saw extensive experimentation in the arts.
        1. Writers explored new literary techniques.
        2. New movements developed in art, such as dadism and surrealism.
        3. Architects explored less decorated forms.
      2. In the 1930s, many artists created more accessible works due to the depression (see HWM Figure 32.1).
        1. Composers hoped to catch the imagination of ordinary working people.
        2. Artists often addressed social issues.
  3. Technology’s Impact on Music
    1. Recordings allowed performances to be preserved and replayed many times.
      1. A new mass market was created that enabled some performers to become international stars.
      2. Songwriters and bandleaders began creating three- to four-minute works that would fit on the side of a record.
      3. The introduction of electronic recording in 1925 (replacing acoustic recording) allowed for more sensitive recordings and encouraged a more intimate style of singing, as heard with Bing Crosby and Frank Sinatra.
    2. Radio broadcasts provided new opportunities for musicians.
      1. By 1924, there were over 1,400 radio stations around North America.
      2. Recordings were too poor in quality to be broadcast, so radio stations employed musicians.
        1. Radio stations sponsored orchestras, such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra (founded 1930) in London and the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937) in New York.
        2. Dance bands, such as Benny Goodman and his band, were given wide exposure on the radio.
      3. Recordings and radio provided widespread dissemination of classical and popular music.
  4. American Musical Theater
    1. Popular music entered a productive era in the 1920s.
      1. A variety of stage shows enjoyed great popularity.
        1. Revues and vaudeville
        2. Operetta and musicals
      2. The Golden Age of Tin Pan Alley extended from 1920 to 1955, when rock and roll brought an end to the sheet music industry.
      3. In the 1920s, developments of popular song and theater were interlinked.
        1. Publishers increasingly relied on recordings to popularize their works.
        2. Hollywood musicals became another venue for songwriters.
    2. Revues
      1. Vaudeville shows, with a loose collection of variety acts, remained popular.
      2. In larger cities like New York, high-quality productions called revues featured musical numbers and included many performers.
      3. The premier series of revues was the Ziegfeld Follies, created by Florenz Ziegfeld.
      4. Important song composers, including Irving Berlin, wrote for revues.
    3. Musicals
      1. Several new operettas were successful in the 1920s, including Sigmund Romberg’s The Student Prince.
      2. The popularity of musicals soon overshadowed operetta.
      3. Some musicals were vehicles for star performers and had loose plots.
      4. Increasingly, more musicals featured strong dramatic stories.
      5. Show Boat (1927), with music by Jerome Kern and text and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, was an enormous success (see HWM Figure 32.2).
        1. It brought together a number of traditions and musical styles.
        2. The score is operatic in scope with referential themes.
        3. The plot deals with serious social issues, such as racism and miscegenation.
  5. Popular Song
    1. The Golden Age of Tin Pan Alley
      1. By 1910, several types of Tin Pan Alley songs had solidified, including waltz, ragtime, and novelty songs.
      2. Most songs had a standard form:
        1. One or more verses
        2. A chorus of thirty-two measures in an AABA, ABAB, or ABAC pattern
      3. The focus was on the chorus, which had the most memorable melodic ideas.
    2. Irving Berlin (1888-1989)
      1. The Russian-born son of a Jewish cantor, Irving Berlin wrote both music and lyrics for his songs.
      2. His lengthy career made him one of the most prolific and best-loved popular songwriters.
      3. He composed songs for revues, movies, and musicals.
      4. Among his best-known songs are:
        1. God Bless America
        2. White Christmas
        3. Alexander’s Ragtime Band, which established his reputation as America’s chief ragtime composer
    3. Cole Porter (1891-1964)
      1. Porter also wrote both music and lyrics for his songs.
      2. He studied music at Yale, Harvard, and the Schola Cantorum in Paris.
      3. Porter wrote exclusively for theater and Hollywood musicals.
      4. His lyrics are urbane and sophisticated and revel in innuendo.
      5. Among his best-known songs are:
        1. Let’s Do It
        2. It’s De-lovely
        3. You’re the Top
  6. Blues
    1. General
      1. Revues, musicals, and Tin Pan Alley continued traditions that had begun in Europe.
      2. African-American music and musicians played an increasingly larger role in American musical life.
      3. The 1920s, known as “The Jazz Age,” produced two related traditions of African-American origin: blues and jazz.
      4. The origin of the blues is obscure.
      5. Lyrics
        1. The words describe disappointments, mistreatment, or other troubles.
        2. A sense of defiance and a will to survive are also conveyed.
        3. Touches of humor are common.
      6. Music
        1. Melodic contours and syncopation express the feelings of the words.
        2. Distinctive vocal or instrumental effects evoke the sound of a person expressing pain, sorrow, or frustration.
        3. Blues often featured flattened or bent notes on the third, fifth, and seventh scale degrees called blue notes.
      7. Two types of blues developed: classic blues and Delta blues.
    2. Classic blues
      1. Classic blues were sung primarily by African-American women.
      2. The accompaniment was typically a piano or a small combo.
      3. Mamie Smith’s recording of Crazy Blues (1920), the first blues recording by an African-American singer, sold 75,000 copies within months.
      4. Her success prompted record companies to market their products to black audiences.
      5. W. C. Handy (1873-1958), known as the “father of the blues,” introduced sheet music forms of blues songs as early as 1912.
      6. With his publications, Handy solidified the standard twelve-bar blues form.
    3. Back Water Blues (1927) by Bessie Smith illustrates this form (see NAWM 149 and HWM Example 32.1).
      1. Bessie Smith (1894-1937; see HWM Figure 32.3)
        1. Smith wrote the lyrics and the music after a Nashville flood in 1926.
        2. The recording, marketed after another flood in Mississippi in 1927, became one of her best-known records.
      2. Each poetic stanza has three lines.
        1. The second stanza typically restates the first.
        2. The third completes the thought with the same or similar rhyme.
      3. Each line of text has four measures of music with a set harmonic pattern.
        1. The first phrase remains in the tonic.
        2. The second phrase begins in the subdominant and ends in the tonic.
        3. The third phrase touches on the dominant, subdominant, and tonic.
      4. Following a brief piano introduction, each of the seven stanzas follows the same form and general melodic outline.
      5. Blue notes and syncopated melodic inflections can be heard in the performance.
      6. The vocal melody cadences in the third measure of each phrase, allowing for a call and response interchange with the pianist, James P. Johnson.
      7. Possible links to African music include:
        1. Improvisations on a simple formula
        2. Syncopation
        3. Repetition of short patterns
        4. Bent pitches
        5. Call and response
    4. Delta blues
      1. Delta blues came form the Mississippi Delta region.
      2. It is primarily associated with male African-American singers and guitarists.
      3. Delta blues was more directly rooted in oral tradition and hence exhibited more variety than the classic blues.
      4. Archivists, such as Alan Lomax, traveled to remote rural areas and recorded blues artists.
        1. These recordings gave blues singers national recognition.
        2. The singing style is rough, rich in timbre and nuance, and rhythmically flexible.
        3. Each section alternates voice and guitar in the style of call and response.
      5. Many Mississippi Delta blues singers moved to Chicago, where they would influence future generations of performers.
      6. The legacy of Robert Johnson (1911-1938) extended into the 1960s, when British rock musicians rediscovered his recordings.
  7. Jazz
    1. Jazz in the 1920s
      1. Jazz was established in the 1910s, and its popularity grew rapidly.
      2. Distinctive features of 1920s jazz
        1. Syncopated rhythms
        2. Novel vocal and instrumental sounds
        3. Unbridled spirit that seemingly mocks social and musical properties
        4. Improvisation
      3. Jazz was a performer’s art; the recording industry and radio fostered growth and dissemination.
    2. New Orleans jazz
      1. Named after the city where it originated, New Orleans jazz was the dominant jazz type just after World War I.
      2. New Orleans jazz style
        1. It improvises on a twelve-bar blues, a sixteen-measure strain from ragtime, or a thirty-two bar popular song form (usually AABA).
        2. The tune is presented initially over a given harmonic progression.
        3. The harmonic progression is repeated with various soloists and combinations of soloists playing over it.
        4. Each repetition is called a chorus.
        5. Each chorus features different instruments and new ideas, creating a theme-and-variations form.
        6. The style recalls the call and response and ecstatic outpourings of the African-American gospel tradition
      3. Leading musicians include:
        1. Joe “King” Oliver (1885-1938), cornet
        2. Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), trumpet
        3. Jelly Roll Morton (1890-1941), piano
    3. King Oliver and Louis Armstrong
      1. King Oliver moved to Chicago in 1918 and formed his own band in 1920.
      2. In 1922, Armstrong joined King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.
      3. They made some of the most important recordings in jazz history (see HWM Figure 32.4).
      4. Armstrong later formed his own band called the Hot Five or Hot Seven.
    4. West End Blues (see NAWM 150 and HWM Example 32.2)
      1. West End Blues, composed by King Oliver with lyrics by Clarence Williams, is a twelve-bar blues.
      2. The published sheet music (NAWM 150a) adapts the blues to Tin Pan Alley verse-refrain form.
        1. The brief piano introduction includes a vamp.
        2. The verse presents one statement of a twelve-bar blues progression.
        3. The refrain has two successive statements of the twelve-bar blues.
        4. For each blues statement, Oliver composes a new melody and varies the harmony slightly.
      3. Armstrong recorded this song in 1928 with his Hot Five in Chicago.
        1. Melody instruments: trumpet, clarinet, and trombone
        2. Rhythm section: drums, piano, and banjo
      4. The recording maintains the blues form (NAWM 150b).
        1. Armstrong plays an introduction, which is followed by five choruses.
        2. In the first, Armstrong plays the tune with increasing acrobatics.
        3. The second features the trombone.
        4. In the third, the clarinet alternates in call and response with Armstrong.
        5. Armstrong sings syllables instead of playing, a technique that is known as scat singing.
        6. The piano solos on the fourth chorus.
        7. The entire ensemble plays during the fifth chorus.
    5. Big bands
      1. A fashion for larger bands began in the 1920s, partially due to larger performance spaces.
      2. Many African-American and white musicians formed “big bands.”
      3. The typical big band of the 1930s was divided into brass, reeds, and rhythm sections.
        1. Brasses might include three trumpets and two trombones.
        2. Reeds consisted of clarinets and saxophones.
        3. The rhythm section had piano, drums, guitar, and double bass.
      4. The sections interacted as units and alternated as soloists.
      5. Although there was still improvisation, much of the material was written by an arranger.
      6. Arrangements led to more sophisticated ensemble playing and more complex harmonies.
      7. Some arrangers adapted sounds of modern classical music, including seventh chords, added sixth chords, and chromatic harmonies.
      8. The typical big band also featured a vocalist.
      9. The combination of stylish arrangements with jazz rhythms produced a music that became known as swing.
      10. The number of swing bands exploded in the 1930s, a time when white bands established themselves more easily than African-American bands.
    6. George Gershwin (see HWM Figure 32.5)
      1. Gershwin used jazz and blues to add new dimensions to art music.
      2. Rhapsody in Blue (1924) was billed as a “jazz concerto.”
        1. It premiered at an extravagant concert organized by Paul Whiteman.
        2. It is scored for piano and jazz ensemble.
        3. It incorporates popular song forms, blue notes, and other jazz elements.
        4. The work became very popular.
      3. Gershwin continued in this direction with his Concerto in F (1925), whose second movement is constructed over a twelve-bar blues pattern stretched into a sixteen-measure theme.
      4. Porgy and Bess (1935)
        1. Written for an African-American cast, Gershwin called this work a folk opera.
        2. Elements are drawn from both operatic and Broadway traditions.
        3. The music is continuous and features recurring motives, as found in opera.
        4. African-American idioms include spirituals, blues, and jazz.
      5. Gershwin also wrote popular songs for both revues and musicals.
      6. He wrote songs for Of Thee I Sing (1931), which was the first musical to win the Pulitzer Prize for drama.
      7. His music helped launch the careers of numerous stars, including Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, and Ethel Merman.
    7. I Got Rhythm by George Gershwin (NAWM 151)
      1. The song was composed for the Broadway musical Girl Crazy (1930).
        1. The show introduced Ginger Rogers and Ethel Merman, who later recorded this song.
        2. The song became an instant hit and a vehicle for later jazz improvisations.
      2. The song is in the standard Tin Pan Alley form: a verse and a thirty-two-bar chorus
        1. The chorus has phrases in an AABA’ pattern.
        2. Typical of the time, there is only one verse, and the chorus is repeated.
        3. The verse begins in G minor and goes to B-flat major.
        4. The chorus begins in B-flat major, goes to D major in the “bridge” section, and then returns to B-flat through the circle of fifths.
      3. The lyrics by Gershwin’s brother Ira are fresh, catchy, and full of slang.
    8. Jazz in Europe
      1. In the 1920s, jazz spread quickly throughout North America, Latin America, and Europe.
      2. Europeans were exposed to jazz through imported recordings, sheet music, and traveling jazz ensembles.
      3. African-American musician soldiers in Europe during World War I helped to introduce the style.
      4. By the 1930s, a European jazz tradition was well established, and jazz was a frequent subject in European literature and arts (see HWM Figure 32.6).
      5. Django Reinhardt (1910-1953)
        1. The gypsy guitarist formed the Quintette du Hot Club de France, one of the most successful and innovative jazz bands in Europe.
        2. Reinhardt blended jazz with the traditions of gypsy music.
      6. Gershwin also wrote popular songs for both revues and musicals.
      7. He wrote songs for Of Thee I Sing (1931), which was the first musical to win the Pulitzer Prize for drama.
      8. His music helped launch the careers of numerous stars, including Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, and Ethel Merman.
    9. Duke Ellington (1899-1974) (see HWM biography, page 860, and Figure 32.7)
      1. Edward Kennedy (“Duke”) Ellington is the most important composer of jazz to date.
      2. Biography
        1. Ellington was born in Washington, D. C., the son of a White House butler.
        2. He studied piano, including ragtime, from the age of seven.
        3. In 1923 he went to New York with his band, the Washingtonians, where he played on Broadway and in Harlem at the famous Cotton Club, and made recordings.
        4. Seen as a national treasure, he made several international tours sponsored by the U. S. State Department.
      3. Cotton Club period (1927-31)
        1. In Harlem, the Cotton Club offered alcohol and entertainment by black performers; it catered to white audiences.
        2. Here Ellington developed his individual style and began to gain national recognition.
        3. The stability of this environment allowed Ellington to experiment.
        4. He created longer jazz works, such as Creole Rhapsody and Reminiscing in Tempo.
        5. Ellington moved the group towards greater reliance on arrangements.
        6. He often crafted his numbers around specific performers.
      4. Ellington and his band began touring in 1931.
      5. The band grew in size to reach eighteen performers by 1946.
      6. Many of Ellington’s works were sold as popular songs, such as Sophisticated Lady and Don’t Get Around Much Anymore.
      7. Ellington reached a creative peak in the early 1940s, when he added three important new members to his band:
        1. Jimmie Blanton on bass
        2. Ben Webster on tenor saxophone
        3. Billy Strayhorn as second pianist, composer, and arranger; he produced a number of standards such as Take the A Train (1941)
      8. Cotton Tail (1940; see NAWM 152 and HWM Example 32.3)
        1. Ellington composed the work to showcase Blanton and Webster.
        2. It follows the standard jazz form: a tune, given at the beginning, is followed by a series of choruses.
        3. The tune is composed over the harmonic progression of Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm (NAWM 151), a technique that is called contrafact.
        4. Ellington’s tune is quite distinct from Gershwin’s melody.
        5. The first two choruses feature Ben Webster on tenor saxophone accompanied by the rhythm section.
        6. Webster does not vary the tune, but creates new ideas over the given progressions.
        7. The remaining three choruses present various combinations of instruments in a call-and-response fashion.
        8. Ellington’s tune returns at the end of the work
      9. Ellington considered his music as “beyond category”; jazz was both entertainment and art music.
      10. He pushed the time limits of recordings, composed suites, and created jazz versions of classical favorites, such as Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker.
  8. Film Music
    1. Sound film changed the role of music in film.
      1. The Jazz Singer (1927), the first “talking picture,” included several scenes of Al Jolson singing.
      2. Two categories of music can be heard in film.
        1. Diegetic music, or source music, is music that is heard or performed by the characters themselves.
        2. Nondiegetic music, or underscoring, is background music that conveys a mood or other aspects of a scene or character.
      3. The advent of sound put theater musicians out of work, but by the mid-1930s Hollywood studios employed composers and other musicians.
    2. Both dramas and comedies included musical numbers.
      1. Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel, 1930) featured Marlene Dietrich’s signature song, Falling in Love Again.
      2. Hollywood began producing numerous musicals.
      3. Romberg, Gershwin, Berlin, Kern, and Porter all wrote musicals during the Golden Age of the Hollywood musical.
      4. Some musicals were enlivened by the spectacular choreography of Busby Berkeley.
      5. Many performers became stars through musicals, such The Wizard of Oz (1939), which launched the career of Judy Garland.
    3. Film scores
      1. In Hollywood, film scores were integrated into the dramatic action.
      2. Max Steiner (1888-1971), an immigrant from Vienna, became one of the foremost composers in Hollywood.
        1. He established the model for Hollywood film scoring with his music for King Kong (1933; see HWM Figure 32.8).
        2. In this film, Steiner uses leitmotives for characters and ideas and coordinates the music with actions onscreen.
        3. Steiner composed into the 1960s, and his scores include Gone with the Wind (1939) and Casablanca (1943).
      3. Other major film composers in Hollywood
        1. Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897-1957), from Vienna: The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)
        2. Alfred Newman (1900-1970), the first major American-born film composer: Wuthering Heights, The Song of Bernadette, How the West Was Won, Airport
      4. Animations also featured strong musical accompaniments.
        1. Carl Stalling created music for Disney-Steamboat Willie (1928) was the first sound cartoon-and later for Warner Brothers (Looney Tunes).
        2. Disney created the first feature-length animation, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), with a score by Frank Churchill.
  9. New Canons of Classics
    1. American popular music, jazz, and film music reached audiences around the world.
    2. Since the music could now be preserved, new classics were created.
      1. By 1970, classic canons had developed for popular song, blues, jazz, and film music.
      2. These canons parallel those of classical music that developed in the nineteenth century.
      3. Like much of the traditional classical repertory, the new classics were largely created by performers.

Chapter 31. Modernism and the Classical Tradition

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

Modern composers in the classical tradition all faced a common challenge-how to secure a place in an increasingly crowded repertoire by writing works that performers, audiences, and critics deemed worthy of performance alongside the classics of the past. To succeed, their music had to meet the criteria established by the classics: to be works of high quality that participated in the tradition of serious art music; that had lasting value, rewarding both performers and listeners through many rehearings and close study; and that proclaimed a distinctive musical personality. These criteria were broad enough that composers as diverse as Mahler, Debussy, Vaughan Williams, Sibelius, Rachmaninov, and Scriabin could each win an enduring position in the repertoire, as we saw in the previous chapter. 

In the years just before and after World War I, a younger group of composers carried out a more radical break from the musical language of the past than their predecessors or contemporaries had, while maintaining strong links to the tradition. These composers, who became known as modernists, reassessed inherited conventions as profoundly as the modernists in art who pioneered expressionism, cubism, and abstract art. Modernists in both art and music did not aim to please viewers or listeners on first sight or first hearing, an attribute that had always been considered essential. Instead, they sought to challenge our perceptions and capacities, providing an experience that would be impossible through traditional means. Modernists offered an implicit critique of mass culture and easily digested art, and their writings often show it. These composers saw no contradiction in claiming the masters of the past as models. In fact, they saw their own work as continuing what the pathbreaking classical composers had started, not as overthrowing that tradition. The paradox of all modern classical music, that it must partake of the tradition yet offer something new, is especially acute in the work of modernist composers, who are often most radical in the ways they interpret and remake the past. 

Rather than taking up the topics in this chapter one by one, we will introduce them in the context of discussing six modernist composers who are among the best known and most influential of the entire century. Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky were leaders of two branches of modernism that often seem to be at opposite poles but that faced common concerns. Schoenberg뭩 students Alban Berg and Anton Webern took their teacher뭩 ideas in individual directions. Béla Bart�k and Charles Ives both developed unique combinations of nationalism and modernism within the classical tradition. Born between 1874 and 1885, all six began by writing tonal music in late Romantic styles, then devised new and distinctive post-tonal idioms that won them a central place in the world of modern music. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Challenge of Modernism
    1. Composers in the early twentieth century faced the challenge of creating works worthy of performance alongside the classics of the past.
      1. The music had to be of high quality in the tradition of serious art music.
      2. The music had to have lasting value that rewarded performers and listeners through multiple hearings and study.
      3. These criteria were broad enough to apply to a large number of composers.
    2. Younger composers wanted a more radical break from the past.
      1. Known as modernists, these composers reassessed inherited conventions.
      2. Modernists did not aim to please listeners on first hearing.
      3. They challenged perceptions and capacities.
      4. Modernists were critical of easily digested art and saw their own work as continuing the classical traditions.
  2. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) (see HWM biography, page 803, and Figure 31.1)
    1. Schoenberg moved the German classical tradition toward atonality.
      1. Atonality is a term for music that avoids tonal centers.
      2. He later developed the twelve-tone method for the systematic ordering of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
    2. Biography
      1. Early life
        1. Schoenberg was born in Vienna, the son of a Jewish shopkeeper.
        2. In his younger years, he largely taught himself.
        3. Richard Strauss got him a teaching job in Berlin (1901-03).
      2. Vienna years
        1. Upon his return to Vienna in 1904, he began teaching; his two most famous students were Berg and Webern.
        2. He had support from Mahler, but met resistance from others.
        3. He developed friendships with a number of expressionist painters, and he himself painted (see HWM Figure 31.1).
        4. He formulated the twelve-tone method in the early 1920s.
      3. After Vienna
        1. He had converted to Lutheranism, but converted back to Judaism and moved to France in 1933.
        2. He came to the United States in 1934 and taught at UCLA.
        3. He retired from teaching in 1944 at the age of seventy and died on July 13, 1951.
    3. Tonal works
      1. Schoenberg’s earliest works are tonal in the late Romantic style.
        1. Verkl�rte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899), a tone poem for string sextet
        2. Pelleas und Melisande (1902-03), a symphonic poem
        3. Gurrelieder (Songs of Gurre, 1900-01, orchestration 1911), a cantata
      2. He later turned away from gigantism toward chamber music.
      3. He applied the principal of developing variation to his own works, such as the String Quartet No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 7.
        1. The one-movement quartet combines an enlarged sonata form with the standard four movements of a classical work, similar to Liszt’s Piano Sonata in B Minor.
        2. This work exemplifies Schoenberg’s goal of continuing tradition but with a new voice (see HWM Source Reading, page 804).
      4. Nonrepetition between and within pieces was Schoenberg’s guiding principle.
    4. Atonal music
      1. Schoenberg began composing atonal music in 1908.
      2. He felt that the prolonged dissonances in recent music had weakened the pull of the tonic and exhausted tonality.
      3. “The emancipation of the dissonance” was Schoenberg’s concept of freeing dissonance from its need to resolve to a consonance.
      4. Schoenberg used three methods to create unity without tonality:
        1. Developing variation
        2. Integration of harmony and melody
        3. Chromatic saturation
      5. Gestures from tonal music are used to connect with traditions.
    5. Saget mir, auf welchem Pfade (Tell me on which path) from the Book of the Hanging Gardens, Op. 15 (1908-09) (see HWM Example 31.1)
      1. Based on a poem by symbolist Stefan George, this is one of his first completely atonal works.
      2. The sense of floating in harmonic space is well suited to the vague eroticism of the poetry.
      3. Links to Germanic tradition
        1. Scoring for piano and voice
        2. Rise and fall of the vocal melody
        3. Divisions into phrases
        4. Use of dynamics to shape phrases
        5. Descending gestures to indicate cadences
        6. Developing variation is apparent in voice and accompaniment.
      4. This song can be analyzed in terms of pitch-class sets.
        1. Pitch-class: any note of a chromatic scale and its enharmonic equivalent
        2. Set: a collection of pitches that can be transposed, inverted, and arranged in any order to generate melodies and harmonies
      5. The song also exemplifies chromatic saturation, which uses all twelve pitch-classes within a segment of music.
    6. Atonal works completed in 1909
      1. Book of the Hanging Gardens
      2. Three Piano Pieces, Op. 11
      3. Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16
      4. Erwartung (Expectation), Op. 17
        1. A one-character opera for soprano
        2. Exaggerated gestures and unrelenting dissonance parallel expressionism (see HWM Music in Context, pages 808-09, and Figure 31.2).
        3. As befitting a nightmare, the work is atonal and has no themes or reference to traditional forms.
    7. Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912)
      1. Text
        1. This cycle of twenty-one songs is based on German translations of the Belgian Albert Giraud’s symbolist poetry.
        2. The first two lines of each poem function as a refrain; they are repeated in lines 7-8, and line 1 appears as line 13.
        3. Schoenberg typically sets the returning lines with a variant of the original music at the same pitch level.
      2. Setting
        1. Schoenberg scored the cycle for speaker and a chamber ensemble of five performers who play nine instruments.
        2. The voice declaims the text in Sprechstimme (“speaking voice”), which approximates the written pitches with gliding speech tones.
        3. The combination of instruments is unique for each song.
        4. The music is atonal.
        5. Schoenberg creates coherence through a developing variation method, which continuously draws out new variants of a basic idea presented at the outset.
        6. Many songs evoke old forms, genres, or techniques.
    8. Nacht (Night, NAWM 141a) from Pierrot lunaire
      1. Pierrot sees giant black moths casting gloom over the world.
      2. The basic motive is a rising minor third followed by a descending major third.
      3. The motive reappears constantly, often overlapping itself, such as in the beginning.
      4. The motive is subject to inversion and retrograde.
      5. Schoenberg called this song a passacaglia, a set of variations over a three-note pattern.
        1. The ostinato is stated in measures 4-6.
        2. It reappears, varied, over ten more times.
      6. At the end, the original complex of overlapping statements repeats at pitch.
      7. Despite the atonal treatment, Schoenberg established a strong tonal center.
    9. Enthauptung (Beheading, NAWM 141b) from Pierrot lunaire
      1. Pierrot imagines that he is beheaded by a moonbeam for his crimes.
      2. The first five measures depict the sweep of the scimitar and include both whole-tone scales.
      3. The next ten measures suggest the atmosphere of the moonlit night and Pierrot scurrying to avoid the moonbeam.
      4. The initial ideas are varied constantly throughout.
      5. Augmented chords suggest the image of knocking knees (measure 17).
      6. The movement ends with the downward runs from measures 3-4 at the same pitch level, but now in the piano.
      7. An instrumental epilogue recalls the music of song No. 7.
    10. Twelve-tone method
      1. In the twelve-tone method, pitches are related to each other, not to a tonic.
      2. The basis of twelve-tone composition is a row or series.
        1. A row contains the twelve pitch-classes arranged in an order.
        2. The pitches of the row may sound successively or simultaneously.
        3. The composer usually states all of the pitches in a row before going to another row.
        4. The original version of the row is called the prime.
        5. The row can also be used in inversion (inverted intervals), retrograde (backward), and retrograde inversion.
      3. With this system he continued to explore the principal methods of atonality.
        1. Integration of harmony and melody
        2. Developing variation
        3. Chromatic saturation
      4. Schoenberg soon applied these techniques to pieces in classical structures and genres.
      5. In composing sonata forms, Schoenberg had to find an analogue to modulation, as exemplified in his Fourth String Quartet (see HWM Example 31.3).
        1. The row is designed so that the last six notes (the second hexachord) is an inversion of the first six.
        2. This restriction allows him to establish a harmonic region.
        3. The second theme appears in a region that is a fifth higher.
    11. Piano Suite, Op. 25 (1921-23) (see NAWM 142 and HWM Example 31.2)
      1. The prelude of this suite is Schoenberg’s first twelve-tone piece.
      2. Each movement uses the same eight forms of a row.
        1. Two versions of the prime row: P-O, P-6.
        2. Two inversions of the row: I-0, I-6
        3. Four retrogrades, one for each of the above.
        4. Each row either begins or ends with an E or B-flat.
        5. Each prime or inverted row features the tritone G-D-flat in notes 3 and 4.
        6. With this limited number of transpositions, Schoenberg creates a sense of staying in a single key, a typical practice of the Baroque suite.
      3. Rows are used both melodically and harmonically.
      4. Schoenberg often breaks the row into groups of four notes, called tetrachords.
        1. The first four notes of R-0 spell B-A-C-H (in German nomenclature, B is B-flat and H is B-natural); this is a salute to the master of Baroque suites.
        2. The beginning of the prelude manipulates tetrachords in a contrapuntal fashion.
      5. The minuet follows a strict dance form and reflects Baroque conventions.
        1. The trio is lighter in texture, featuring an inverted two-part canon that evokes the spirit of a Bach invention.
        2. The beginning of the minuet presents two-measure phrases in antecedent-consequent relationships.
        3. The systematic grouping of the row is analogous to chord progressions in tonal music.
        4. The standard binary form is followed, except for the lack of repeat in the second section.
        5. The return of the opening material in measures 29-31 suggests a rounded binary form.
    12. Late tonal works
      1. Some of Schoenberg’s works from the 1930s and 1940s are tonal.
      2. He recomposed two works from the eighteenth century, and their treatment is as radical as the twelve-tone music.
    13. Schoenberg as modernist
      1. His choices in facing the conflict between classic traditions and modernism shaped the course of music in the twentieth century.
      2. His music won a central place in the modernist tradition, but was unpopular with most listeners.
      3. With his music we arrive at the widest gulf between audiences and connoisseurs in their evaluation of music.
      4. Schoenberg and his students Berg and Webern, both natives of Vienna, were known as the Second Viennese School.
  3. Alban Berg (1885-1935) (see HWM Figure 31.3)
    1. General
      1. Berg began studying with Schoenberg in 1904 at the age of nineteen.
      2. He achieved greater popular success than Schoenberg by infusing the music with expressive gestures in the tradition of Mahler and Strauss.
      3. Berg’s expressionistic opera Wozzeck, which premiered in 1925, was one of the most successful modern operas and by far the most popular atonal opera.
    2. Wozzeck
      1. The story is adapted from a nineteenth-century play by Georg Büchner.
        1. The play is based on a real event in which a man who may have been insane was executed for killing the woman he lived with.
        2. Incomplete at B�chner’s death in 1837, the play was finally staged in 1913.
        3. Berg created his own libretto and completed the music in 1922.
      2. The music is atonal, not twelve-tone, and includes some Sprechtstimme.
      3. Berg employs leitmotives that are identified with the main characters (see HWM Example 31.4a).
      4. Each of the three acts has five scenes linked by interludes; the music is continuous.
        1. The first act includes a Baroque suite, a rhapsody, a march and lullaby, a passacaglia, and a rondo.
        2. The second act is a symphony in five movements and includes a sonata form, fantasia and fugue, ternary slow movement, scherzo, and rondo.
        3. Act III is a series of inventions: on a theme (seven variations and a fugue), on a note (B), on a rhythm, on a chord, on a key, and on a duration.
        4. The invention on a key is the Mahlerian interlude before the final scene, the longest interlude of the opera.
      5. Act III, scene 3 (see NAWM 143 and HWM Example 31.4b)
        1. Wozzeck sits in a tavern, having just murdered Marie.
        2. In this invention on a rhythm, an out-of-tune onstage piano introduces the basic rhythmic pattern.
        3. Throughout the scene, the rhythmic pattern repeats incessantly, sometimes in augmentation or diminution.
        4. By the end, all are singing the scene’s main rhythm.
        5. Berg maintains atonality, but makes references to recognizable tonal styles.
    3. Twelve-tone works
      1. After Wozzeck, Berg adopted the twelve-tone system.
      2. Berg chose rows that allowed for tonal-sounding chords and progressions.
      3. Principal twelve-tone works
        1. Lyric Suite for string quartet (1925-26)
        2. Violin Concerto (1935)
        3. Lulu (1928-35), his second opera
      4. Violin Concerto (see HWM Example 31.5)
        1. The row has four interlocking minor and major triads.
        2. The piece begins with evocations of a violin tuning its open strings.
        3. Berg also uses a Viennese waltz style, a folk song, and a Bach chorale, Es ist genug.
        4. The chorale, which alludes to the death of Manon Gropius, contains three rising steps, like the end of the row.
  4. Anton Webern (1883-1945) (see HWM Figure 31.4)
    1. General
      1. Webern began studying with Schoenberg in 1904, the same year as Berg.
      2. He also studied musicology at the University of Vienna and received a Ph.D. in 1906.
      3. His concept of music history influenced his development.
        1. He felt that evolution in art was necessary and that history can only move forward, not revisit events or ideas of the past.
        2. The Path to the New Music is a series of lectures in which Webern argued that twelve-tone music was the inevitable result of music’s evolution.
        3. His beliefs gave him the confidence to continue composing despite much opposition; he saw himself as a researcher making new discoveries.
      4. Webern’s works were widely influential following World War II.
    2. Works and styles
      1. Webern passed through the stages of late Romantic, chromaticism, atonality, and twelve-tone organization.
      2. He began the last phase in 1925 with the songs of Op. 17.
      3. He wrote equally for voice and instruments, usually writing for small chamber ensembles.
      4. His music is extremely concentrated.
        1. Some of his works are only a few measures long.
        2. His entire mature output takes less than four hours to play.
      5. His texture has been described as pointillistic, since it often features only one to four notes in succession on the same instrument.
      6. The dynamics seldom rise above forte.
      7. Treatment of the row
        1. He avoided using rows with tonal implications.
        2. He frequently employed canons in inversion or retrograde.
    3. Symphony, Op. 21, first movement (see NAWM 144 and HWM Example 31.6)
      1. The work is scored for a small chamber orchestra.
      2. Each of its two movements is in a traditional classical form.
        1. The first movement is a sonata form.
        2. The second movement is a theme with seven variations.
      3. The entire first movement also has a double canon in inversion.
      4. The row is a palindrome, with the intervals reading the same forward and backward.
      5. Webern reconceives the sonata form in new terms.
        1. Rather than two contrasting themes, Webern presents a contrast of character between canon 1 and canon 2.
        2. The development section is a palindrome.
        3. The recapitulation presents the same succession of rows as the exposition, but with new rhythms and registers.
      6. He employs a succession of timbres similar to Schoenberg’s concept of Klangfarbenmelodie (tone-color melody), in which changes of tone color are perceived as parallel to changing pitches in a melody.
      7. At times there is just one note per instrument, creating tiny points of sound, which has been described as pointillism.
  5. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) (see HWM biography, page 820, and Figure 31.5)
    1. Stravinsky created an individual voice by developing several traits, most from Russian traditions.
      1. Distinctive qualities
        1. Undermining meter through unpredictable accents and rapid changes of meter
        2. Frequent ostinatos
        3. Static blocks of sound juxtaposed or layered
        4. Discontinuity and interruption
        5. Dissonance based on diatonic, octatonic, and other collections
        6. Dry, antilyrical, but colorful use of instruments
      2. Stravinsky forged these traits during his Russian period.
      3. He became arguably the most important composer of his time.
    2. Biography
      1. Stravinsky was born near St. Petersburg to a well-to-do musical family.
      2. He studied composition and orchestration privately with Rimsky-Korsakov.
      3. Sergei Diaghilev commissioned Stravinsky to compose for the Ballet Russes.
      4. Stravinsky moved to Paris in 1911 and remained there after the Russian Revolution.
      5. Capitalizing on the notoriety of the Rite of Spring, Stravinsky performed tirelessly as a pianist and conductor, which increased his international recognition.
      6. He eventually settled in Hollywood, and several of his pieces incorporate American styles.
    3. Russian Period (to 1918)
      1. The Firebird (1910)
        1. The ballet is based on Russian folk tales.
        2. Human characters are portrayed with diatonic music and supernatural creatures with octatonic or chromatic music.
      2. Petrushka (1910-11)
        1. The opening scene presents blocks of static harmony with repetitive melodic and rhythmic patterns.
        2. Seemingly unrelated musical events interrupt each other, creating an aural equivalent to Picasso’s cubism.
        3. Stravinsky borrows several Russian folk tunes and simulates folk harmony (see HWM Example 31.7).
        4. To depict the supernatural, Stravinsky draws upon a biting octatonic sound.
        5. The “Petrushka chord” is derived from an octatonic scale (see HWM Example 31.8).
      3. The Rite of Spring (1911-13)
        1. The ballet, set in prehistoric Russia, does not tell a story, but shows a fertility ritual in which an adolescent girl is chosen for sacrifice and dances herself to death.
        2. Nikolay Roerich designed the sets and costumes, and Vaclav Nijinsky was the choreographer.
        3. The scenario, choreography, and music are marked by primitivism, a deliberate representation of the crude and uncultured (see HWM Figure 31.6).
        4. The audience at the premiere broke into a riot (see HWM Source Reading, page 824).
        5. The music has since become one of Stravinsky’s most commonly performed works.
    4. Danse des adolescents (Dance of the Adolescent Girls) from The Rite of Spring (see NAWM 145a and HWM Example 31.9)
      1. The dissonant opening chord uses all seven notes of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.
      2. The emphasis on pure pulse contributes to the sense of primitivism.
        1. The metrical hierarchy of beats is negated as each pulse is played with the same strength.
        2. Unpredictable accents destroy any sense of regularity.
      3. The entire scene is built from ostinatos that create static blocks of sound.
      4. Stravinsky builds up textures by layering two or more strands of music on top of each other.
      5. The contrasting blocks of sound share several pitches, which lend a sense of continuity.
      6. The movement incorporates a Russian folk tune (measure 43) and two folklike melodies.
      7. Stravinsky often links a motive with a specific instrumentation.
      8. Stravinsky prefers a dry, rather than lush, timbre in his orchestration.
    5. Danse sacrale (Sacrificial Dance) from The Rite of Spring (see NAWM 145b)
      1. This is the last dance of the ballet.
      2. Stravinsky adopts two additional strategies that reduce meter to pulse.
        1. Rapidly changing meters
        2. Unpredictable alternation of notes with rests
      3. The opening, section A
        1. The main idea (measures 2-5) is repeated many times.
        2. Other similar figures alternate with the main idea.
      4. Section B begins in measure 34.
        1. The section begins softly with pulsing chords and a chromatic melodic idea.
        2. The section builds to a frightening climax (measures 91-92).
        3. It suddenly returns to the opening dynamic and begins to build again.
      5. The A section returns, transposed down a semitone (measure 116).
      6. A new section begins at measure 149.
        1. The section features percussion instruments.
        2. A whole-tone scale, introduced by the horns (measure 154), is transformed into a folklike melody (measures 160-171).
      7. The opening of section A briefly interrupts (measures 174-80).
      8. A bass ostinato is introduced at measure 203, and the material of section A builds to a final climax.
    6. L’histoire du soldat (The Soldier’s Tale, 1918)
      1. Wartime economy forced Stravinsky to turn to small musical ensembles.
      2. This ballet is scored for six solo instruments and percussion.
      3. Using dance movements, such as a tango, waltz, and ragtime, Stravinsky discovered ways to imitate familiar styles within his own musical style.
    7. Neoclassicism
      1. Neoclassicism denotes a broad movement that took place from the 1910s to the 1950s.
        1. Composers revived, imitated, or evoked styles, genres, and forms of pre-Romantic music, particularly from the eighteenth century.
        2. Neoclassicism rejected the high emotions of Romanticism.
      2. Stravinsky used neoclassicism as a new avenue for his own distinctive style.
      3. Stravinsky’s neoclassic music has an emotional detachment and can be seen as anti-Romantic.
    8. Neoclassical period (1919-1951)
      1. Pulcinella (1919), a ballet commissioned by Diaghilev
        1. The work consists of orchestrations of pieces by Pergolesi, an eighteenth-century composer.
        2. Through orchestrating Pergolesi’s pieces, Stravinsky discovered the past.
      2. Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
        1. This work features many of the same methods as The Rite of Spring, but unlike The Rite of Spring, it is an abstract composition.
        2. Along with Pulcinella, this work marks the beginning of Stravinsky’s neoclassicism.
      3. He became the leading composer in the neoclassic style, which culminated in the opera The Rake’s Progress (1951).
    9. Symphony of Psalms, first movement (1930; see NAWM 146 and HWM Example 31.10)
      1. Symphony of Psalms is a three-movement work for mixed chorus and orchestra that uses psalms from the Latin Vulgate Bible.
      2. Baroque features
        1. Perpetual motion
        2. Frequent ostinatos
        3. Fully developed fugue in the second movement
      3. Stravinsky maintains an objective rather than emotional sound; he omits violins, viola, and clarinets.
      4. Some traits remain from the Rite, such as changing meters and unexpected rests.
      5. But the music is less dissonant and has characteristics of earlier music, such as the Gregorian chant style at the entrance of the voices.
      6. The juxtaposition of contrasting blocks of material articulates an abstract form.
      7. The movement alternates two main sections, and there is a contrasting middle section (see diagram in the commentary to NAWM 146).
      8. Neotonality
        1. Tonal centers are established through repetition and assertion, not through traditional harmony.
        2. At the beginning, E-minor chords alternate with sixteenth-note arpeggiations.
        3. When the voices enter, E is the main focus.
        4. E is also sustained in the bass.
        5. The A sections are primarily diatonic, using the notes of E Phrygian.
        6. The B sections are largely octatonic.
        7. Stravinsky juxtaposes E and G and also moves from E to G at the close.
      9. Stravinsky and Schoenberg
        1. Partly because of his use of tonal centers, audiences preferred Stravinsky’s music to Schoenberg’s.
        2. Both composers had supporters who argued about the need for tradition.
        3. The two composers were closer in spirit than might be first perceived.
    10. Serial period (1951-1971)
      1. In the 1950s, Schoenberg’s twelve-tone techniques were extended to parameters other than pitch, which became known as serialism.
      2. Stravinsky adapted serial techniques, but maintained many of his distinctive characteristics in his late works, including:
        1. In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), a song cycle
        2. Threni (1957-58), for voices and orchestra, on texts from the Lamentations of Jeremiah
        3. Movements (1958-59), for piano and orchestra
    11. Influence
      1. Stravinsky’s impact on other composers is similar to that of Wagner and Debussy.
      2. Many elements that he created became commonplace.
      3. He popularized neoclassicism.
      4. His support for serialism helped gain him a strong following.
      5. His writings, such as Poetics of Music, have been widely read.
  6. Béla Bartók (1881-1945) (see HWM biography, page 830, and Figure 31.8)
    1. Bartók synthesized elements of Hungarian, Romanian, and Bulgarian peasant music with elements of the German classical tradition.
    2. Biography
      1. Bartók was born in a small Hungarian city (now in Romania).
      2. He began piano lessons at age five and began to compose at age nine.
      3. He studied piano and composition at the Budapest Academy of Music and returned there in 1907 to teach piano.
      4. A virtuoso pianist, he concertized throughout Europe.
      5. He also edited the keyboard music of classic composers.
      6. Bartók as an ethnomusicologist
        1. Bartók collected thousands of folk songs, edited them into collections, and wrote about folk music.
        2. He used audio recording in his field research (see HWM Figure 31.9).
        3. He argued that peasant music better represented the nation than urban music.
        4. In 1934 he accepted a position as ethnomusicologist at the Academy of Sciences.
      7. Bartók enjoyed a productive compositional period until the threat from Nazi Germany forced him to flee to the United States.
      8. He settled in New York, but suffered financially and physically until his death from leukemia in 1945.
    3. Musical influences
      1. In his early career, he modeled his music on the works of classical masters, such as Bach, Beethoven, and Liszt.
      2. He was later inspired by the works of modernists, including Richard Strauss, Debussy, Schoenberg, and Stravinsky.
      3. Bartók and folk music
        1. He arranged many peasant tunes.
        2. He created original works by blending rhythmic, melodic, or formal characteristics of peasant music with classical and modern traditions.
    4. Major works
      1. He created a distinctive style in his early works.
        1. Bluebeard’s Castle (1911), a one-act opera, mixes Hungarian elements with influences from Debussy.
        2. Allegro barbaro (1911) and other piano music treated the instrument in a percussive manner.
      2. Following World War I, his works grew more dissonant.
        1. Two Violin Sonatas (1921 and 1922)
        2. The Third and Fourth String Quartets
        3. The Miraculous Mandarin, an expressionistic pantomime
      3. His later works are his most widely known.
        1. The Fifth and Sixth String Quartets
        2. Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936)
        3. Concerto for Orchestra (1943)
      4. Mikrokosmos (1929-33)
        1. 153 piano works in six books of graded difficulty
        2. The work is of great pedagogical value.
    5. Musical style
      1. Bartók maintained a single pitch center, using diatonic and other scales.
      2. He built melodies from repeated and varied motives.
      3. Bartók retained elaborate contrapuntal procedures from the classical tradition, such as the fugue.
      4. He drew upon complex rhythms and meters common in peasant traditions.
      5. His harmonies, often dissonant, are frequently built from seconds and fourths.
      6. He was fond of symmetry.
    6. Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta
      1. The work has four movements, similar to a classical symphony.
        1. Slow fugue
        2. Fast sonata form
        3. Slow arch form
        4. Rondo finale
      2. The fugue theme appears in each of the other movements.
      3. Each movement contains canon and imitation, often in inversion.
      4. The outer movements are in A, and the inner movements center on notes a minor third above (C) and below (F-sharp).
      5. The work is neotonal.
        1. All of the movements center on tritone relationships.
        2. The slow movement centers on F-sharp with C as a competing pole (see HWM Example 31.11).
        3. The themes, created by varying small motives, are often in diatonic modes.
      6. Peasant elements
        1. Bulgarian dance meters alternate twos and threes; Bart�k adopts a 2-3-3 pattern in the fourth movement.
        2. The Serbo-Croatian song is heavily ornamented, partly chromatic, and speechlike (parlando-rubato), which is imitated near the beginning of the third movement (see HWM Example 31.13).
        3. Other characteristics include drones, snapped pizzicatos, and percussive dissonant chords.
    7. Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta, third movement (NAWM 147)
      1. The movement is a modified arch form: ABCB’A’.
      2. The four phrases of the opening fugue theme separate these sections (measures 19, 34, 60, and 74).
      3. Section A (measures 1-18)
        1. The palindromic form of the third movement is foreshadowed in the opening xylophone solo (see HWM Example 31.12).
        2. The section also features glissandos on the timpani, low string tremolos, and chromatic figures in the violas and violins.
        3. The pitches center on F-sharp and C, the tonal poles of the movement.
      4. Section B (measures 20-33)
        1. Two solo violins and celesta share the B theme.
        2. The eerie background consists of string trills, parallel major sevenths articulated by the piano, violin glissandos, and tremolos.
      5. Section C (measures 35-59)
        1. The section opens with glissandos, pentatonic scales in the harp, piano, and celesta, and a twisting theme in tremolos.
        2. This texture is known as Bart�k’s “night music.”
        3. The theme builds to a climax, where a new motive appears (violin I, measures 44-45).
        4. The new motive, sometimes played in retrograde, is related to the third phrase of the fugue theme, which enters at measure 60.
      6. Section B’ (measures 63-72)
        1. The B theme is in canon at the tritone.
        2. The accompanying texture is similar to the first half of section C.
      7. Section A’ (measures 75-83) presents an abbreviated version of the opening section.
  7. Charles Ives (1874-1954) (see HWM biography, page 836, and Figure 31.10)
    1. Biography
      1. Ives was born in a small Connecticut city, where his father was a bandmaster and music teacher.
      2. He became the youngest professional church organist in the state at age fourteen.
      3. His father taught him theory and an experimental approach to sound.
      4. He studied music with Horatio Parker at Yale.
      5. Ives settled in New York, working as an organist.
      6. He chose a career in the insurance business and built one of the most successful agencies in the nation.
      7. He composed music in the evenings and weekends, but retired from composing in 1918 due to a health crisis.
      8. Although he worked in obscurity, he was later recognized as the first American composer to create a distinctly American body of art music.
    2. Ives was fluent in four distinct spheres of composition, and he combined elements of each in his mature music.
      1. American vernacular music
        1. He grew up surrounded by American vernacular music, including parlor songs, minstrel shows, and marches directed by his father.
        2. He composed numerous marches and parlor songs.
      2. Protestant church music
        1. Ives sang and played organ in church for much of his early life.
        2. He learned all of the styles prominent in American Protestantism, which were cultivated in his studies with Parker.
      3. European classical music
        1. He played major organ works by composers such as Bach and transcriptions of other classical works.
        2. He studied art music with Parker.
        3. His First Symphony is modeled after Dvo㎭k’s New World Symphony.
      4. Experimental music
        1. He experimented with new sounds, including polytonality (melody in one key and accompaniment in another), in his youth.
        2. Processional for chorus and organ is an essay on possible chord structures (see HWM Example 31.14a).
        3. Scherzo: All the Way Around and Back for chamber ensemble is a palindrome that builds on dissonant ostinatos (see HWM Example 31.14b).
        4. The Unanswered Question (1908), his best-known experimental work, combines both tonal and atonal layers in one work.
    3. Synthesis
      1. Ives composed in classical genres after 1902, but mixed in other styles and sounds that he knew.
      2. The Second Symphony paraphrased American popular songs, borrowed passages from classic composers, and combined them in a symphonic idiom.
    4. Cumulative form
      1. American hymn tunes can be found in Ives’s Third Symphony, four violin sonatas, and First Piano Sonata.
      2. In each, thematic development occurs first and leads to the themes at the end.
      3. In this process, Ives asserts the universal value of his country’s music (see HWM Source Reading, page 840).
    5. Many of Ives’s later pieces have programs celebrating American life.
      1. Three Places in New England presents orchestral pictures of:
        1. The first African-American regiment in the Civil War
        2. A band playing at a Fourth of July picnic
        3. A walk by a river with his wife during their honeymoon
      2. A Symphony: New England Holidays captures the spirit of national holidays.
      3. Concord Mass., 1840-60, his second piano sonata, pays tribute to the writers in that city at that time: Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and the Alcotts.
      4. The Fourth Symphony, a philosophical work, poses and seeks to answer the “searching questions of What? and Why?”
      5. Quotations of American tunes are frequent, often layered on top of each other.
      6. Ives frequently mixed styles within a single work.
    6. General William Booth Enters into Heaven (1914; see NAWM 148 and HWM Example 31.15)
      1. This song is based on a Vachel Lindsay poem that pictures the founder of the Salvation Army leading the poor and downtrodden into heaven.
      2. Although it is an art song, Ives mixes aspects of American vernacular music, church music, and experimental music.
      3. Several hymns and American tunes are paraphrased, and a cumulative form leads to an entire verse of the hymn There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood.
      4. Opening section (measures 1-18)
        1. Ives imitates Booth’s bass drum with dissonant chords on the piano.
        2. Over the “street beat,” the vocal line presents phrases derived from There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood.
      5. Second section (measures 19-39)
        1. Ives gives each group of followers a different musical characterization.
        2. He uses ostinatos, parallel dissonant chords, and other modernist sounds.
        3. The hymn tune returns with the refrain.
      6. The “mighty courthouse” (measures 40-81)
        1. A crowd is suggested through a rising and falling whole-tone scale in the voice and ostinatos in the piano.
        2. The piano paraphrases Oh, Dem Golden Slippers in measures 52-55 with the suggestion of banjo playing.
        3. Ives adds a bugle call and a hint of the hymn Onward, Upward in measures 70-74.
      7. The appearance of Jesus (measures 82-91)
        1. There Is a Fountain is heard in the piano.
        2. This is the first mostly diatonic passage in the song.
        3. The slow tempo and soft dynamics suggest the dignity and serenity of Jesus.
      8. Closing section (measures 92-113)
        1. The march beat returns in the piano.
        2. At the climax, the complete verse of There Is a Fountain is sung.
        3. The action stops near the end, and the closing refrain is set twice, over soft arpeggiated chords and then in four-part Protestant harmony.
        4. The parade fades away in the distance.
    7. Influence
      1. Ives’s influence was felt after World War II.
      2. He could justifiably be called the founder of the experimental-music tradition in the United States.
  8. Composer and Audience
    1. Modernism widened the split between popular and classical music.
      1. Modernism targeted those willing to study and listen to a work repeatedly.
      2. Such works became favorites of other composers, but were held in disdain by audiences.
    2. Films have introduced both excerpts from modernist works and modernist techniques to general audiences.
    3. Compositions by all six of the composers mentioned here have found a permanent place in the classical repertory, and interest in their music has tended to increase.

Chapter 30. The Early Twentieth Century

Chapter Outline

 

 

The early twentieth century was a time of rapid change in technology, society, and the arts, including music. American popular music developed new currents in ragtime and jazz that won the world뭩 attention. Composers in the classical tradition, forced to compete for space on concert programs with the classics of the past, sought to to win an audience in the present and secure a place in the permanent repertoire of the future by offering a unique style and perspective that balanced tradition and novel elements. Faced with common problems, they created highly individual solutions, differing in what they valued most in the tradition, what they discarded, and what innovations they introduced. Most continued to use tonality, but many wrote post-tonal music, and a few took up the banner of the avant-garde. As a result, music became increasingly diverse in style and approach, a process that accelerated throughout the twentieth century. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Changing Traditions
    1. New currents
      1. American ragtime and jazz won international recognition.
      2. Composers in the classical tradition attempted to balance the past with novel ideas.
      3. Although many continued to use tonality, other wrote post-tonal music.
      4. Some composers took up the banner of the avant-garde.
    2. Modern times, 1898-1918
      1. This era was self-consciously “modern.”
      2. Technological developments include:
        1. Electric lighting
        2. Affordable automobiles
        3. Airplanes
        4. Player pianos and phonographs (see HWM Innovations, pages 760-61, and Figures 30.1 and 30.2)
        5. Motion pictures, with live musical accompaniment
      3. Economies expanded greatly.
        1. People continued to migrate to cities, and nostalgia for nature increased.
        2. Workers organized labor unions to fight for better conditions.
        3. The great powers competed for dominance.
        4. Increasing tensions led to World War I, in which technological advances contributed to the high number of casualties.
      4. The United States
        1. The country emerged as a global power after World War I.
        2. The Progressive movement created reforms to reduce the dominance of large corporations.
        3. Immigrants continued to stream to the country.
        4. African Americans from the south moved to northern cities, where they settled into segregated neighborhoods.
      5. Freud and Pavlov challenged Romantic views of individual self-determination.
      6. Artists did not necessarily seek popular appeal; many searched for new and unusual content or techniques.
        1. Symbolist poets used intense imagery.
        2. Impressionist painters captured impressions of a subject (see HWM Figure 30.3).
        3. Cubist artists depicted subjects with geometrical shapes (see HWM Figure 30.4 and 30.5).
  2. Vernacular Musical Traditions
    1. Popular song
      1. Popular songs were performed in a variety of venues in many regions.
      2. Tin Pan Alley was in its heyday.
    2. Stage music
      1. Revues with popular songs spread from Paris to London to New York.
      2. Operetta was given new life with popular successes.
        1. The Merry Widow (1905) by Franz L�har (1870-1948) in Vienna
        2. Babes in Toyland (1903) and Naughty Marietta (1910) by Victor Herbert (1859-1924) in the United States
      3. Musical comedies, or musicals, featured popular songs and dances in the context of spoken plays with comic or romantic plots.
        1. George Edwardes established the genre in London during the 1890s.
        2. George M. Cohan inaugurated a distinctive American musical with Little Johnny Jones (1904), which featured two famous songs: Give My Regards to Broadway and The Yankee Doodle Boy.
    3. Silent films
      1. Moving pictures emerged in the 1890s.
      2. The first public display was Emile Reynaud’s Pantomimes lumineuses (Luminous Mime Shows, 1892) in Paris with music by Gaston Paulin.
      3. Films were silent until the 1920s.
      4. Silent films were usually accompanied by live music.
      5. Role of music
        1. Cover noise of projector
        2. Provide continuity to the succession of scenes and shots
        3. Evoke appropriate moods
        4. Mark dramatic events
      6. Musical accompaniment
        1. Music was often performed by a pianist or organist, who might improvise.
        2. Larger theaters had music created by the music director for an ensemble.
        3. Musical techniques and excerpts were borrowed from the Classic repertory.
      7. Beginning in 1909, studios issued cue sheets to show the sequence of scenes and events in a movie.
      8. Music anthologies, such as Giuseppe Becce’s Kinothek (Berlin, 1919), were published to help the theater music director.
      9. Original scores were created for films.
        1. Saint-Sa�ns inaugurated the tradition with L’assassinat du duc de Guise (1908).
        2. Joseph Carl Breil (1870-1926) created an orchestral score for D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation, a film with a racist message.
        3. Breil mixed excerpts from classics with new music.
    4. Band music
      1. The tradition of bands remained strong and extended to colleges and schools.
      2. Among the professional bands to emerge was Helen May Butler’s Ladies Brass Band, one of several all-female ensembles.
      3. Repertory
        1. Few pieces for band were composed in the Classic and Romantic eras.
        2. New serious works were written for band, largely by English composers.
      4. African-American musicians were trained in brass bands, and black bands played important social roles through the turn of the century.
    5. Ragtime
      1. Ragtime, featuring syncopated (or “ragged”) rhythms against a regular bass, was a popular style from the 1890s through the 1910s.
      2. This syncopation was apparently derived from the clapping Juba of American blacks, a survival of African drumming and hand clapping.
      3. Ragtime encompassed piano music, ensemble music, and songs.
      4. Cakewalks helped introduce syncopation.
        1. A cakewalk was a couples dance derived from slave dances.
        2. It is marked by strutting and acrobatic movements.
        3. The music was published without syncopations until 1897.
      5. Will Marion Cook (1869-1944), an African-American composer, introduced the new rhythmic style to Broadway.
      6. Many new songs were written with ragtime rhythms.
    6. Scott Joplin (1867-1917) was the leading ragtime composer (see HWM Figure 30.6).
      1. The son of a former slave, he moved to New York in 1907.
      2. He completed an opera, Treemonisha, in 1910, but it was not staged until 1972.
      3. He is best known for his piano rags, which he intended to be classical works, equivalent to Chopin’s mazurkas and waltzes.
    7. Maple Leaf Rag (1899; see NAWM 136a and HWM Example 30.1)
      1. Background
        1. The rag was named after the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia, Missouri, where he performed regularly.
        2. The work eventually sold over one million copies.
      2. The rag is set in 2/4 and follows the form of a march.
        1. Typically a rag has two sixteen-measure strains, each repeated (AABB).
        2. A trio with two more strains follows, usually in a key a fourth higher (CCDD).
      3. Unusual features of Maple Leaf Rag
        1. No introduction
        2. The first strain returns before the trio, creating this form: AABBACCDD
        3. The original key returns in the last strain; hence the C strain is in the subdominant D-flat major, while the rest is in A-flat major.
      4. The left hand keeps a steady pulse while syncopations appear in melodies of the right hand.
      5. The harmony is colorful, with chromatic passing tones, lowered sixth chords, and changes of mode.
      6. The repetition of short rhythmic ideas can be traced to African traditions.
      7. The recordings feature two early performances: a player piano roll created by Joplin and a jazz version by Jelly Roll Morton.
    8. Early jazz
      1. Jazz, another type of African-American music, began to develop in the 1910s.
      2. Jazz appears to have begun as a mixture of ragtime, dance music, and blues.
      3. New Orleans has traditionally been viewed as the “cradle of jazz,” although recent research has uncovered early jazz in other regions as well.
        1. The French and Spanish background in the city gave the music a distinctive character.
        2. It was the only southern city in which slaves were allowed to gather in public; hence African traditions were maintained more strongly.
        3. The city had close connections to Caribbean rhythms, including Haitian, Cuban, and Creole.
        4. The style was first known as the New Orleans style of ragtime, but when it was transplanted to other urban centers, it was called jazz.
      4. Jazz performers improvised on a given work, allowing each performer to develop a distinctive character.
      5. Jelly Roll Morton performed Joplin’s Maple Leaf Rag in a jazz style (NAWM 136b).
  3. Modern Music in the Classical Tradition
    1. The classic canon
      1. At the end of the eighteenth century, audiences demanded new music.
      2. At the end of the nineteenth century, audiences demanded old music that had become enshrined as classics.
      3. Concert halls became museums for musical artworks created over the last two centuries.
      4. Living composers found themselves competing with music of the past.
        1. Composers sought to continue tradition while offering something new.
        2. Decisions about what to preserve and what to change varied greatly.
        3. Individuality took precedence over conventionality.
        4. Some composers abandoned tonality; others redefined it.
        5. Many turned to national styles.
    2. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
      1. Mahler was the leading Austro-German composer of symphonies after Brahms and Bruckner and one of the great masters for voice and orchestra.
      2. He was famous as a dynamic and precise conductor (see HWM Figure 30.7).
        1. He conducted at numerous opera houses, including the Vienna Opera from 1897 to 1907.
        2. He also conducted the Metropolitan opera in New York (1907-10) and the New York Philharmonic (1909-11).
      3. Major works
        1. Nine symphonies, and a tenth that was unfinished
        2. Five orchestral song cycles
    3. Mahler symphonies
      1. Songs played a large role in his symphonies.
        1. Themes from his Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Wayfarer) appear in his Symphony No. 1.
        2. Voices are in four of his symphonies.
        3. Symphonies Nos. 2, 3, and 4 use themes from Mahler’s songs based on texts from Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Boy’s Magic Horn).
      2. For Mahler, writing a symphony was to “construct a world,” which can be seen in the enormous variety of musical styles that he employed.
      3. Orchestration
        1. Huge forces, extending up to Symphony No. 8, the “Symphony of a Thousand”
        2. Great imagination in the combination of instruments, often only a few playing at a time
      4. A number of his symphonies have programmatic implications.
      5. Symphony No. 4
        1. The symphony begins in G major and ends in E major, and each movement differs from the others.
        2. The first movement recalls the eighteenth-century style of Haydn, particularly in the treatment of themes (see HWM Example 30.2).
        3. Later themes and developments in the first movement create the sense that the Enlightenment was displaced by irrational dreams analyzed by Freud.
        4. The movement suggests the contradictions in modern life, similar to what is seen in Gustav Klimt’s painting, Music (see HWM Figure 30.8).
    4. Mahler song cycles with orchestra
      1. Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children, 1901-4) is based on five poems by Friedrich R�ckert.
      2. Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth, 1908)
        1. Mahler created this work for tenor and alto soloists with orchestra.
        2. The poems are translated from Chinese.
        3. The texts alternate between frenzied grasping at the dreamlike whirl of life and sad resignation at having to part with all its joys and beauties.
        4. The mood alternates between ecstatic pleasure and deadly foreboding.
    5. Nun will die Sonn’ so hell aufgehen from Kindertotenlieder (NAWM 137)
      1. The text contrasts the death of a child at night with the uncaring rise of the sun in the morning.
      2. The sparse use of instruments creates the transparency of chamber music.
      3. The poem has four couplets, which Mahler sets in an AABA song form.
      4. First couplet
        1. The initial duet of horn and oboe is stark and empty.
        2. The opening line “Now will the sun so brightly rise” is set to a mournful melody that emphasizes descending half-steps.
        3. The next line turns to a radiant D major with a rising chromatic line, creating a contrast between the moods of the text and music.
        4. An orchestral interlude leads back to minor for the second couplet.
      5. Second couplet
        1. The music is a variant of the opening section.
        2. The text matches the musical moods more closely.
      6. Third couplet
        1. This is the only couplet not to mention misfortune or the sun.
        2. New music develops from earlier motives.
        3. The music reaches a height of dissonance, chromaticism, and intensity.
      7. Fourth couplet
        1. The music of the first couplet returns.
        2. The final line is repeated, and the song closes in a poignant D minor.
    6. Strauss operas
      1. Strauss tuned to opera after establishing himself with symphonic poems.
        1. Guntram (1893) was an early failure.
        2. Feuersnot (The Fire Famine, 1901) was a moderate success.
      2. Salome (1905)\
        1. Strauss adapted the libretto from a one-act play by Oscar Wilde (see HWM Figure 30.9).
        2. In this decadent version of the biblical story, Salome performs the Dance of the Seven Veils and entices Herod to sever the head of John the Baptist.
        3. Strauss created harmonically complex and dissonant music that greatly influenced later composers (see HWM Example 30.3).
        4. For its effect, Strauss depended upon the audience hearing the dissonance in relation to an eventual resolution.
      3. Elektra (1906-8)
        1. This is the first of seven operas to librettos by Viennese playwright Hugo von Hofmannsthal.
        2. Elektra is adapted from a play by Sophocles and dwells on insane hatred and revenge.
        3. The dissonance is at times even more extreme than in Salome.
      4. Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose, 1909-10)
        1. The opera depicts a sunny world of elegance, eroticism, and nostalgia.
        2. This sentimental comedy features Viennese waltzes.
  4. Claude Debussy (1862-1918) (see HWM biography, page 781, and Figure 30.10)
    1. Biography
      1. Debussy was born in a suburb of France to a middle-class family.
      2. He began studies at the Paris Conservatoire at the age of ten.
      3. He traveled to Russia and worked for Nadezhda von Meck.
      4. Winning the Prix de Rome, he spent two years in Italy.
      5. He returned to Paris and befriended symbolist poets and painters.
      6. He worked as a music critic.
    2. Musical influences
      1. Debussy admired Wagner’s works, but was repulsed by his bombast.
      2. He preferred the French tradition of restraint, such as in the works of Emmanuel Chabrier (1841-1894).
      3. He found inspiration in Russian composers, medieval music, and music from Asia.
    3. Impressionism and symbolism
      1. Although his music is generally referred to as impressionistic, it is closer in spirit to the French poetic movement symbolism.
      2. With both movements there is a sense of detached observation.
      3. As in symbolism, our attention is drawn to individual images that carry the work’s structure and meaning.
      4. He creates musical images through motives, exotic scales (whole-tone, octatonic, pentatonic), and timbre.
      5. Many of the ideas are not developed or resolved, but simply juxtaposed.
    4. Piano music
      1. These characteristics are exemplified in a passage from a piano work entitled L’isle joyeuse (The Joyous Isle, 1903-4) (see HWM Example 30.4).
      2. In Debussy’s music, the urgency to resolve harmony is absent.
      3. Pleasure is derived from the moment, not the drive toward resolution.
      4. Many of Debussy’s piano pieces have evocative titles.
      5. The twenty-four Preludes (two books, 1909-10 and 1911-13) are character pieces with picturesque titles.
    5. Orchestral music
      1. The orchestral works are similar to those for piano but with the added element of instrumental color.
        1. Motives are often associated with a particular instrument.
        2. The works require a large orchestra, but seldom use the full sound of the ensemble.
      2. Pr�lude � “L’apr�s-midi d’un faune” (Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun,” 1891-94)
        1. A symbolist poem by Mallarm� is the inspiration for this work.
        2. It evokes moods through suggestion rather than expression.
      3. Nocturnes (1897-99) contains three movements that suggest night scenes.
        1. Nuages (Clouds)
        2. Fetes (Festivals)
        3. Sir�ns (the Sirens of Greek mythology), which uses a wordless female chorus
      4. La Mer (The Sea, 1903-5) captures the movement of the sea.
    6. Nuages from Nocturnes (NAWM 138)
      1. The juxtaposition of images replaces traditional development.
      2. This work is set in a modified ABA’ form.
      3. The A section (measures 1-63) is the longest.
        1. The lack of harmonic direction at the beginning suggests slowly moving clouds.
        2. Each appearance of the opening material is different.
        3. A recurring English horn motive is never developed.
        4. The horns usually answer the motive with a tritone (see measure 23).
        5. A chordal idea (measures 15-20) and a unison melody (measures 33-42) provide contrast.
      4. The B section (measures 64-79) is more exotic.
        1. Debussy had heard a gamelan orchestra in Paris in 1889.
        2. He simulated the gamelan texture with a simple pentatonic tune (flute and harp) and a static accompaniment.
      5. The return of the opening material in the A’ section (measures 80-102) is fragmented, as if the clouds are scattering.
      6. Harmony
        1. Octatonic and whole-tone scales contribute to the vague imagery.
        2. Chords are not used to shape phrases with tension and release.
        3. Chords are conceived as sonorous units within a phrase.
        4. Oscillating chords, parallel triads, ninth chords, and sustained chords serve to characterize musical images.
        5. Debussy still maintains a sense of tonality; the A sections are in B minor, and the B section centers on the D-sharp Dorian scale.
      7. Orchestration
        1. The English horn is identified with a single motive.
        2. The horns are used only for brief gestures.
        3. The combination of unison flute and harp creates a bell-like sonority.
        4. Strings are muted and divided.
        5. Delicate timpani rolls are barely audible near the beginning.
    7. Songs and stage music
      1. Debussy set texts by a number of major French poets.
      2. He wrote music for several plays.
      3. He completed only one opera, Pell�as et M�lisande (1893-1902).
        1. The opera is a musical response to Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde.
        2. This work is based on a symbolist play by Maurice Maeterlinck.
        3. The allusions of the text are matched by strange, often modal harmonies, subdued colors, and restraint.
        4. Instrumental interludes carry the mysterious inner drama.
    8. Influence
      1. A seminal composer, Debussy provided a model for later composers in his use of harmony and the orchestra.
      2. He influenced many distinguished composers, including American jazz and popular musicians.
  5. The First Modern Generation
    1. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)
      1. Ravel’s distinctive style is characterized by:
        1. Consummate craftsmanship
        2. Traditional forms
        3. Diatonic melodies
        4. Complex harmonies within an essentially tonal language
      2. Jeux d’eau (Fountains, 1901) (see HWM Example 30.5)
        1. Liszt’s pianistic techniques and Debussy’s color are combined.
        2. Whole-tone and diatonic music are juxtaposed.
        3. Whole-tone sonorities function as dissonances that need to resolve.
        4. Ravel also employed major-seventh chords.
      3. Although he is often considered to be an impressionist, Ravel was subject to a variety of influences.
      4. Several works can be viewed as impressionistic in their imagery, orchestration, and harmonies.
        1. Miroirs (Mirrors, 1904-5), descriptive piano pieces
        2. Rapsodie espagnole (Spanish Rhapsody, 1907-8), an orchestral suite
        3. Daphnis et Chlo� (1909-12), a ballet.
      5. Some piano works (which were later orchestrated) evoke the stylized dances of the French Baroque.
        1. Pavane pour une infante d�funte (Pavane for a Dead Princess, 1899)
        2. Le tombeau de Couperin (Memorial for Couperin, 1914-17)
      6. His songs draw on French art and popular traditions.
      7. He incorporates Classic forms in numerous works.
        1. String Quartet in F (1902-3)
        2. Piano Trio (1914)
      8. Ravel also incorporated popular traditions from outside of France.
        1. La valse (1919-20) is an orchestral poem using Viennese waltz rhythms.
        2. Tzigane for violin and piano (1924) evokes a gypsy style.
        3. The Violin Sonata uses blues.
        4. Piano Concerto for the Left Hand (1929-30) incorporates jazz elements.
        5. Bolero (1928) features Spanish idioms
    2. Manuel de Falla (1876-1946)
      1. Like other Spanish composers, de Falla composed in a national style.
        1. Wanting to go beyond mere exotic sounds, he studied folk music.
        2. The ballet El amor brujo (Love, the Sorcerer, 1915) and other early works are imbued with melodic and rhythmic qualities of Spanish popular music.
      2. His finest mature works combine national elements with neoclassic elements.
        1. El retablo de maese Pedro (Master Pedro’s Puppet Show, 1919-23) is based on an episode from Don Quixote.
        2. Concerto for Harpsichord with five solo instruments (1923-26) harkens back to the Spanish Baroque.
    3. Gustav Holst (1875-1937) (see HWM Figure 30.11)
      1. The English musical renaissance begun by Elgar took a nationalist turn in the early twentieth century.
        1. Cecil Sharp and Ralph Vaughan Williams collected and published folk songs.
        2. Both used folk songs in their compositions.
      2. Holst’s Somerset Rhapsody uses folk melodies.
      3. Choral Hymns from the Rig Veda (1908-12) uses Hindu sacred texts.
      4. The orchestral suite The Planets (1914-16), his best-known work, is non-nationalist.
    4. Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958)
      1. Biography
        1. He studied with Ravel.
        2. His influences included Debussy, Bach, and Handel.
      2. He composed art music and practical music, using elements from each tradition in the other.
        1. Vaughan Williams used folk melodies and English hymnody.
        2. He edited the new English hymnal in 1904-6.
      3. Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (1910)
        1. Composed for a double string orchestra and string quartet, this works is based on a Tallis hymn in the Phrygian mode.
        2. Fragments of the theme are developed in a free fantasy that uses antiphonal sonorities and triads in parallel motion.
    5. Leos Jan�cek (1854-1928)
      1. Jan�cek was the leading Czech nationalist composer of the twentieth century.
      2. He worked within the genres of Western art music, but developed a national style based on his study of folk music from Moravia.
      3. His music juxtaposes contrasting sonorities and is closer in procedure to the music of Musorgsky or Debussy than to the German tradition.
      4. His operas dominated the Czech stage beginning with Jenufa (1904), which is based on a Moravian subject.
      5. The juxtaposition of contrasting materials heard in his operas is also found in his instrumental works, such as the flashy orchestral Sinfonietta (1926).
    6. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
      1. Finland was part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917 and was culturally dominated by Sweden.
      2. Sibelius, a Finnish patriot, sought to create a national musical style.
        1. He wrote songs and derived symphonic poems from the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala.
        2. He established himself as the leading nationalist composer with a series of symphonic poems, including The Swan of Tuonola (1895) and Finlandia (1900).
      3. Sibelius gained an international reputation, largely based on his Violin Concerto and seven symphonies.
      4. His personal style is characterized by:
        1. Modal melodies
        2. Uncomplicated rhythms
        3. Insistent repetition of brief motives, ostinatos, and pedal points
        4. Strong contrasts of timbres and textures
      5. Sibelius employs a “rotational form.”
        1. He repeatedly cycles through a series of thematic elements that are varied each time.
        2. The rotational form can be seen in the third movement of his Symphony No. 4 (see HWM Example 30.6).
      6. His reliance on tonality helped build his popularity in Britain and the United States, but it hurt his reputation elsewhere.
      7. He had stopped composing by the late 1920s.
    7. Sergei Rachmaninov (1873-1943) (see HWM Figure 30.12)
      1. Rachmaninov and his classmate Scriabin (see below) at the Moscow Conservatory showed no interest in folk music; each developed an individual style.
      2. Rachmaninov made his living primarily as a pianist, and his most characteristic works are for piano, including:
        1. Twenty-four preludes in every major and minor key
        2. Two sets of Etudes-Tableaux
        3. Four piano concertos
        4. Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini for piano and orchestra (1934)
      3. His orchestral works include:
        1. Three symphonies
        2. The Isle of the Dead (1907), a symphonic poem
      4. Musical style
        1. Rachmaninov is renowned for his passionate, melodious idiom.
        2. He reworked a variety of elements from the Romantic tradition.
    8. Prelude in G Minor, Op. 23, No. 5 (1901) (see NAWM 139 and HWM Example 30.7)
      1. The work has an ABA Coda form.
      2. The A section (measures 1-34) is in aaba song form.
        1. The principal theme is marchlike and builds to a powerful climax.
        2. The theme is simple in conception, but the rhythm and figuration make it unique and memorable.
        3. Each repetition of this theme is varied.
      3. The B section (measures 35-53)
        1. The theme is lyrical and passionate with rolling arpeggiations in the accompaniment.
        2. The theme has several subtle connections to the first section.
        3. A countermelody is added for the repetition of the theme.
      4. The work uses traditional harmonies.
        1. The music never leaves the key of G minor.
        2. Rachmaninov introduces motion through the circle of fifths in the A section to suggest modulation.
        3. The B section focuses on the dominant seventh chord.
      5. Rachmaninov’s rhythms, registration, and development create a unique character that earned his music a place in the permanent repertoire.
    9. Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915) (see HWM Figure 30.13)
      1. Scriabin began by composing piano works in the style of Chopin, but he gradually absorbed other elements:
        1. The chromaticism of Liszt and Wagner
        2. The octatonic scale and exoticism of Rimsky-Korsakov
        3. The juxtapositions of texture, scale, and figuration from Debussy
      2. Scriabin developed a complex harmonic vocabulary of his own.
      3. In addition to piano music, he composed symphonies and the notable orchestral work Poem of Ecstasy (1908).
      4. Scriabin’s last five piano sonatas (1912-13) dispense with key signatures and tonality; each develops from a complex chord that functions as a kind of tonic.
    10. Vers la flame (Toward the Flame), Op. 72 (1914) (see NAWM 140 and HWM Example 30.8)
      1. This one-movement work is a tone poem for piano.
        1. Theme A (measures 1-6) involves two voices moving in counterpoint.
        2. Theme B (measures 27-34) is a single melody.
      2. Two main ideas define the form.
        1. The title suggests a journey toward enlightenment.
        2. The activity and dynamics gradually increase until reaching a transcendent climax at the end.
      3. The works has four large sections that place the two thematic elements in new contexts (see diagram in NAWM 140 commentary).
      4. The B theme appears in a different transposition each time, but A returns to the original pitch level in sections 3 and 4, creating a sense of stability.
      5. The harmony centers on a referential sonority of two tritones, which are derived from the octatonic scale: E-A-sharp-G-sharp-D.
        1. These tritones, heard at the beginning, serve as a kind of tonic chord.
        2. Variations appear throughout.
        3. At the end, D is raised to D-sharp (measure 125), which resolves the remaining tensions.
      6. Harmonic relationships by thirds are common in the work.
      7. Most chords have four or more notes; the final sonority has six.
      8. The dissonances do not require resolution.
      9. Scriabin uses the harmonic color to create static blocks of sound.
    11. Tonal and post-tonal music
      1. The composers in this survey varied in their treatment of tonality, ranging from Scriabin to Rachmaninov.
      2. Many composers continued to work with tonality, some bringing out new flavors and possibilities.
      3. Other composers created new approaches that either redefined tonality or abandoned the idea.
      4. The term post-tonal can be applied to all the new ways composers found to organize pitch, from atonality to neotonality.
  6. The Avant-Garde
    1. Avant-garde is a term that is best reserved for art that seeks to overthrow accepted aesthetics and start fresh.
      1. The movement began in the years before World War I.
      2. The music is not marked by a shared style, but by a shared attitude-an unrelenting opposition to the status quo.
    2. Erik Satie (1866-1925)
      1. The music of French composer Erik Satie wittily upends conventions.
      2. In the three Gymnop�dies (1888) for piano, he challenges Romantic notions of expressivity and individuality with music that is plain and unemotional.
      3. Satie composed several sets of piano pieces between 1900 and 1915.
        1. He used surrealistic titles such as Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear (1903), which actually has seven pieces.
        2. He added directions to the performer that satirized Debussy.
      4. Satie did not attempt to write masterworks.
        1. He challenged the basis of Classical tradition.
        2. His larger works sought to fix our attention on the present.
      5. His “realistic ballet” Parade (1916-17) was a collaborative production with writer Jean Cocteau, choreographer L�onide Massine, and Picasso (see HWM Figure 30.14).
        1. Satie incorporated jazz elements, a whistle, a siren, and a typewriter.
        2. The work caused a scandal, as did some of his other large works.
      6. Satie’s works question the listener’s expectations; no two pieces are alike.
      7. Satie influenced the younger French generation and a number of American composers.
    3. Futurism
      1. Italian futurists even rejected traditional musical instruments.
      2. Luigi Russolo (1885-1947)
        1. He argued that musical sounds had become stale (see HWM Source Reading, page 798).
        2. He divided noises into six families, and he helped build new instruments called intuonarumori (noisemakers).
      3. The movement anticipated other later developments, including electronic music.

Chapter 29. Diverging Traditions in the Later Nineteenth Century

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

We have seen how German and Austrian composers in the second half of the nineteenth century responded in different ways to their common heritage, and in the process each created a distinctive personal style. Composers in other lands drew both on the German tradition and on the music of their own nations. Often-but not always- they sought to assert a specifically national style, as well as an individual one. French composers debated whether to assimilate Bach, Beethoven, and Wagner or to pursue a more national idiom. In Russia, Bohemia, and Scandinavia, nationalist schools emerged in instrumental music as well as in opera. Yet in Britain and the Americas, many composers avoided overt nationalism, choosing instead to speak in what they regarded as the universal common language of music. 

All these competing currents contributed to the growing diversity of classical music in the later nineteenth century. But classical music was only one of several streams in musical life, alongside entertainment music, popular song, utilitarian music, and folk music. Through a look at trends in the United States, we can gain a sense of the variety of musical traditions at the time. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. German Traditions and Nationalism
    1. German and Austrian composers in the late nineteenth century drew upon their national heritage, as observed in HWM Chapter 28.
    2. In other regions, composers debated how to deal with the Germanic traditions.
      1. French composers argued about whether to assimilate Bach, Beethoven, and Wagner or to create a new idiom.
      2. Nationalist schools in instrumental music appeared in Russia, Bohemia, and Scandinavia (see nationalism discussion in HWM Chapter 27).
      3. Composers in Britain and the Americas avoided overt nationalism.
  2. France
    1. General trends
      1. Paris was the principal center of both concert music and opera.
      2. Concerts featured symphonic works of the German tradition and works by French composers.
      3. Conductor Edouard Colonne introduced explanatory program notes in a concert series surveying the history of music (see HWM Figure 29.1).
      4. Concerts and musical styles were often tied to politics.
      5. A variety of music schools were established, but the Conservatoire was still the most prestigious.
      6. Two principal strands of music composition dominated prior to the emergence of impressionism.
        1. A cosmopolitan tradition transmitted through C�sar Franck
        2. A French tradition, embodied in the music of Gabriel Faur�
    2. C�sar Franck (1822-1890)
      1. Born in Belgium, Franck studied at the Conservatoire and became professor of organ there in 1871.
      2. Musical characteristics
        1. Classical genres, forms, and counterpoint
        2. Thematic transformation and cyclic unity
        3. Wagnerian harmony
      3. Franck’s Prelude, Chorale, and Fugue (1884) for piano mixes Baroque forms and procedures with the thematic and harmonic methods of Liszt and Wagner.
      4. Organ music
        1. He often combined original melodies in chorale style with richly developed fantasias and full chordal finales, as in Three Chorales (1890).
        2. His improvisatory style inaugurated a new type of organ music in France.
        3. The design of the organ in France changed to accommodate this approach.
      5. Franck is considered the founder of modern French chamber music.
      6. All three of his major chamber works are cyclic and incorporate thematic transformation.
        1. Piano Quintet in F Minor (1879)
        2. String Quartet in D Major (1889)
        3. Violin Sonata in A Major (1886)
    3. Gabriel Faur� (1845-1924) (see HWM Figure 29.2)
      1. The French tradition drew upon the works of composers from Couperin to Gounod.
        1. Music was viewed more as sonorous form than as expression.
        2. Order and restraint are fundamental.
        3. Music is more lyric or dancelike than epic or dramatic.
      2. Biography
        1. Faur� studied under Saint-Sa�ns and had several posts as organist.
        2. He was a founder of the Soci�t� Nationale, which sought to preserve French traditions.
        3. He became a professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire in 1896 and served as director from 1905 to 1920.
        4. His large works include the Requiem (1887) and two operas.
        5. He primarily composed smaller works, including songs, short piano works, and chamber music.
      3. Faur� developed a new style in which melodic lines are fragmented and harmony is less directional.
      4. Avant que tu ne t’en ailles (Before you depart) from the song cycle La bonne chanson (The Good Song, 1892) (see HWM Example 29.1)
        1. Fragmentary melodic phrases
        2. Harmonic treatment dilutes the need for resolution and creates a sense of repose.
  3. Russia
    1. Tchaikovsky
      1. Tchaikovsky successfully combined classical forms and nationalism.
      2. Many of his works have joined the classical repertory, including:
        1. Ballets (see HWM Chapter 27)
        2. Piano concertos and a violin concerto (1878)
        3. Symphonies, most notably his last three (Nos. 4-6)
      3. Symphony No. 4 in F Minor (1877-78)
        1. Tchaikovsky suggested that the opening horn call represents fate.
        2. The horn call reappears and unifies this cyclic symphony.
        3. The keys in the first movement move within a circle of minor thirds.
        4. The outer movements are dramatic; the second is wistful, and the third is an airy scherzo.
      4. Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, the Path�tique (1893)
        1. The scherzo is replaced by a 5/4 waltz.
        2. The dance movement is second, followed by a vivacious rondo.
        3. The symphony ends with a despairing slow movement.
    2. Borodin
      1. Borodin was a devotee of chamber music and an admirer of Mendelssohn.
      2. His melodies reflect the spirit of folk tunes.
      3. Style
        1. Songlike themes
        2. Transparent orchestral texture
        3. Modally tinged harmonies
        4. Spinning out an entire movement from a single idea
      4. Major works
        1. Two string quartets (1874-79 and 1881)
        2. Symphony No. 2 in B Minor (1869-76)
        3. In Central Asia (1880), a symphonic sketch
    3. Musorgsky
      1. Major nonoperatic works
        1. Night on Bald Mountain (1867), a symphonic fantasy
        2. Pictures at an Exhibition for piano (1874, later orchestrated by Ravel)
        3. Song cycles: The Nursery (1872), Sunless (1874), and Songs and Dances of Death (1875)
      2. Pictures at an Exhibition
        1. This set of ten pieces was inspired by an exhibition of sketches, paintings, and designs by Viktor Hartmann.
        2. Several of the images are rendered in character pieces that are joined by a theme that represents the viewer walking.
        3. The image of a commemorative gate to be built at Kiev was set as a grand processional hymn with Western and Russian elements (see HWM Figure 29.3 and Example 29.2).
    4. Rimsky-Korsakov
      1. Although he composed a variety of works, he is best known for his programmatic orchestral pieces.
        1. Capriccio espagnole (1887)
        2. Sheherazade (1888), a symphonic suite
        3. Russian Easter Overture (1888)
      2. These works display his genius for orchestration and musical characterization.
      3. The four movements of Sheherazade represent four stories as told to the sultan by his wife, who is portrayed with a solo violin.
  4. Bohemia
    1. Smetana
      1. The String Quartet No. 1, From My Life (1876) uses a nationalist style.
      2. M� vlast (My Country, ca. 1872-79) is a cycle of six symphonic poems.
        1. The Moldau, the best-known work of the set, depicts the river that moves through the Czech countryside to Prague.
        2. T�bor, the most stirring of the set, employs a traditional chorale as a symbol of Czech resistance to oppression.
    2. Dvo㎭k
      1. Dvo㎭k’s nonoperatic works include:
        1. Nine symphonies
        2. Four concertos, including the Cello Concerto in B Minor
        3. Numerous dances for orchestra
        4. Other chamber works, piano pieces, songs, and choral works
      2. Dvo㎭k could write in both international and national styles.
        1. Symphony No. 6 in D Major (1880) is international in style.
        2. Nationalist works include the Slavonic Dances and the Dumky Piano Trio.
      3. He served as artistic director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York.
        1. Dvo㎭k was hired to help create a national style in the United States.
        2. He looked to the music of American Indians and African Americans for a source of an American style (see HWM Source Reading, page 745).
        3. He applied some of these elements to the Symphony No. 9 in E Minor (From the New World), his best-known work, and to the String Quartet No. 12 in F Major (American).
  5. Northern Europe
    1. Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
      1. Grieg created a distinctive nationalist style in Norway with a series of songs, short piano pieces, and orchestral suites.
      2. Norwegian elements
        1. Modal melodies and harmonies
        2. Dance rhythms
      3. The nationalist style can best be seen in:
        1. Songs on Norwegian texts
        2. Peer Gynt Suite (1875)
        3. Slatter, a collection of Norwegian peasant dances arranged for piano
      4. His piano style has some similarities to Chopin’s, but folk elements predominate.
      5. Some of Grieg’s works were international in character, including the popular Piano Concerto in A Minor (1868, revised 1907).
    2. Edward Elgar (1857-1934)
      1. Elgar was the first English composer to gain international recognition in over two hundred years.
      2. He did not adopt a distinctive national style, and he drew upon the styles of both Brahms and Wagner.
      3. The Dream of Gerontius (1900), an oratorio, is influenced by Wagner’s Parsifal.
      4. His orchestral works include the Enigma Variations (1899) and two symphonies.
  6. The United States
    1. Diverse musical styles
      1. Ethnic diversity complicated the creation of a national identity.
      2. Immigrants from various regions brought their own musical traditions.
      3. Three principal types of music emerged, although with some overlapping.
        1. Classical, which centered on the composer and required complex notation
        2. Popular, which was notated and sold but centered on the performer
        3. Folk, which was passed on through oral tradition
    2. The classical tradition
      1. A large number of Germans immigrated to the United States in the middle of the nineteenth century.
        1. German musicians had a strong commitment to their national traditions.
        2. German immigrants filled American orchestras and taught music at all levels.
        3. German tastes and style dominated American music in the classical tradition until World War I.
      2. Theodore Thomas (1835-1905)
        1. He came to the U. S. in 1845 and later played violin in several orchestras.
        2. He conducted the Brooklyn Philharmonic and then founded his own orchestra, the Theodore Thomas Orchestra.
        3. His ensemble was one of the best and most successful classical music organizations in this country.
        4. Despite this success, he still needed to perform lighter dance music periodically.
        5. He became the first conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
    3. American composers in the classic tradition
      1. John Knowles Paine (1839-1906) became Harvard’s first professor of music.
      2. George Whitefield Chadwick (1854-1931) studied at the New England Conservatory in Boston and became its director.
      3. Horatio Parker (1863-1919), a student of Chadwick, taught at Yale and was the first dean of its School of Music.
      4. Edward MacDowell (1860-1908) was the first professor music at Columbia University.
      5. All of the above composers studied in Germany, and their styles were deeply rooted in German tradition.
      6. They had varying attitudes about nationalism.
        1. Parker wrote in an international style that is reflected in his best-known work, the oratorio Hora novissima (1893).
        2. Chadwick employed pentatonic melodies and distinctive rhythms in his Symphony No. 2 in B-flat (1883-85) and Symphonic Sketches (1895-1904).
        3. MacDowell opposed overt nationalism, but he nevertheless wrote several nationalist works, including his Second Indian Suite (1891-95) based on American Indian melodies.
    4. Amy Marcy Beach (1867-1944) (see HWM Figure 29.4)
      1. Biography
        1. Beach was a child prodigy.
        2. Excluded from the top universities because she was a woman, she studied privately in Boston and taught herself.
        3. She married a wealthy physician and had time to compose.
        4. Beach was internationally recognized and inspired many women in later generations.
      2. Beach composed several large-scale works.
        1. Mass in E-flat (1890)
        2. Gaelic Symphony (1894-96)
        3. Piano Concerto (1899)
        4. Piano Quintet (1907)
      3. She also wrote about 120 songs and other piano and choral works.
      4. Style
        1. Some of her music has an ethnic flavor, like the Irish tunes in the Gaelic Symphony and the American Indian melodies in the String Quartet (1929).
        2. Most of her works follow German traditions.
    5. Beach Piano Quintet
      1. Relation to Brahms’s Piano Quintet in F Minor
        1. Beach performed the Brahms quintet with the Kneisel Quartet, which inspired her to compose her own quintet.
        2. Beach adapted a theme from Brahms’s quintet in each of her three movements.
        3. These three versions of the theme are related through thematic transformation.
        4. The relationship of Beach’s theme to Brahms’s is most distant in the finale (see example in the commentary to NAWM 134).
      2. Last movement (NAWM 134)
        1. With its rich harmony and brilliant piano writing, the musical style is clearly rooted in the Romanticism of the late nineteenth century.
        2. The movement is in a modified sonata form.
        3. The development features a fugato, stirring climax, and a reprise of a theme from the first movement.
        4. The recapitulation begins with the second theme, and the first theme reappears briefly near the end of the movement.
    6. Bands in America
      1. The earliest American bands were in the military, but local bands emerged in the nineteenth century.
      2. The invention of valves for brass instruments allowed them to play melodies in any register, and brass instruments became the backbone of the band.
      3. Bands played a large role during the Civil War, and they continued to proliferate afterwards.
      4. Professional bands enjoyed a heyday between the Civil War and World War I.
      5. Patrick S. Gilmore (1829-1892)
        1. He founded his own band in 1858.
        2. He led two mammoth festival concerts with performers numbering in the thousands.
        3. He toured the United States and Europe with his band.
      6. John Philip Sousa (1854-92)
        1. Sousa was inspired by the success of Gilmore.
        2. He conducted the United States Marine Band.
        3. He also organized his own internationally recognized band in 1892 (see HWM Figure 29.5).
    7. Band music
      1. Concerts mixed arrangements of classic works with lighter works, such as dances and popular melodies.
      2. The march was the staple of the band repertory (see HWM Figure 29.6).
        1. The march generally opens with a brief introduction, usually four measures.
        2. Two strains or periods follow, each repeated.
        3. A trio appears in a contrasting key, usually the subdominant, with an optional introduction and two repeated strains.
        4. A da capo repetition of the march closes the work.
        5. Strains are typically sixteen measures.
        6. The opening of the trio tends to be soft and lyrical.
      3. Sousa’s marches
        1. Sousa dropped the da capo repetition in his marches and instead alternated the lyrical trio with a more aggressive break strain.
        2. He often added countermelodies and increased instrumentation with each repeat of the trio.
      4. The Stars and Stripes Forever (1897, NAWM 135)
        1. The work begins with a four-measure unison introduction in E-flat.
        2. The march has two repeated sixteen-bar strains of a contrasting nature.
        3. The lyrical trio, also thirty-two bars, is set in A-flat, a fourth higher.
        4. Intended for concert performances rather than parades, the work builds to a climactic finish.
        5. The chromatic break strain creates a dramatic contrast.
        6. Countermelodies are added to the repetition of the trio.
        7. Sousa often performed the work with varied settings.
    8. Popular song
      1. In the late nineteenth century, the gulf between art songs and popular songs widened.
      2. Composers of popular songs sought to entertain audiences, accommodate amateur performers, and sell as many copies as possible.
      3. Subjects for songs ranged from love to satire.
      4. Songs were also used to convey ideas about politics, religion, and society.
      5. The standard form of the popular song was the verse and refrain.
        1. The piano plays a four- or eight-measure introduction.
        2. The verse is eight, sixteen, or thirty-two measures in length.
        3. The refrain is similar in size to the verse.
      6. The refrain was often sung in harmony, so that the term chorus was applied to the refrain.
      7. Both verse and refrain can have internal repetitions.
      8. The key to success was a catchy phrase, sometimes called a hook.
      9. After the Ball (1892) by Charles K. Harris
        1. The song has a catchy chorus above a waltz dance rhythm (see HWM Example 29.3).
        2. After the Ball sold over a million copies, making the composer rich.
      10. Tin Pan Alley, a district in New York that specialized in music publishing, developed strategies for selling sheet music.
    9. Music of African Americans
      1. Brought to America as slaves, Africans found it difficult to maintain their own ethnic culture.
      2. Slaves were able to preserve a distinct musical style because it was shared among a number of African societies and because music was encouraged by slaveowners.
      3. Characteristics of African music
        1. Call and response, the alternation of short phrases between a leader (call) and a group (response)
        2. Improvisation, usually on a simple formula
        3. Syncopation
        4. Repetition of short rhythmic or melodic patterns
        5. Multiple layers of rhythm, including strong offbeats
        6. Bending pitches or sliding from one pitch to another
        7. Shouts, moans, and other vocalizations
        8. Instruments like the banjo, based on a West African stringed instrument
      4. These traits are developed later in ragtime, blues, jazz and other musical styles in the African-American tradition.
      5. Spirituals had the greatest impact on nineteenth-century American music.
        1. A spiritual was a religious song of southern slaves.
        2. The texts were based on images or stories from the Bible, sometimes with hidden messages about freedom.
        3. Go Down Moses was the first spiritual to be published (1861).
      6. Published spirituals were arranged as songs with piano accompaniments.
      7. The Fisk Jubilee Singers popularized spirituals in the 1870s through concert tours in the United States and Europe (see HWM Figure 29.7).
      8. By the end of the century, spirituals were folk music, popular music, and sources for melodic material in classic music.

Chapter 28. Late Romanticism in Germany and Austria

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the Western musical world diversified as the audience for music broadened and became more segmented. Increasing interest in music of the past was balanced by the emergence of new styles of concert music, and a growing seriousness in the concert hall and new forms of entertainment music widened the gulf between classical and popular music. We will focus in this chapter on the classical tradition in Germany, examining how a debate between partisans of Johannes Brahms and of Richard Wagner crystallized divisions within German music. The following chapter treats national traditions in France and eastern and northern Europe and explores the division into classical and popular streams primarily through musical life in the United States. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. Variety of Music in the Later Nineteenth Century
    1. Old versus new music
      1. Prior to the nineteenth century, most music performed outside of church was composed within living memory.
      2. By 1850, a basic repertory of musical classics had been created.
      3. The new field of musicology formalized the study of music of the past.
        1. Complete works of composers such as Bach, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, and Chopin were published.
        2. Since Germans did much of the scholarly work, composers from Germany became the primary focus.
        3. Little-known works of the Renaissance and Baroque were collected and published in a number of sets and monuments.
      4. As a result, performers and audiences had both old and new works available to them.
    2. Brahms versus Wagner
      1. Brahms sought to create works within the Classical traditions.
      2. Wagner and Liszt saw the legacy of Beethoven pointing toward new genres and musical approaches.
      3. These divergent views polarized around Brahms and Wagner.
      4. Composers debated the relative merits of:
        1. Absolute and program music
        2. Tradition and innovation
        3. Classical genres and forms and new ones
      5. Both sides linked themselves to Beethoven.
      6. The music from both sides was known as classical music, since it was intended for performance alongside the Classical repertory.
    3. Nationalism versus internationalism
      1. The Classical repertory was performed throughout Europe and the Americas.
      2. Many composers turned to nationalism, not to break with traditions but to add a distinctive new flavor.
      3. In nations like Russia and the United States, composers were split between nationalists and internationalists.
    4. Classical versus popular music
      1. A gulf between classical and popular music grew in instrumental music, song, and choral music.
      2. Earlier composers, like Beethoven, could write both serious and light music.
      3. In the late nineteenth century, composers specialized in one or the other.
      4. Johann Strauss the younger, the “Waltz King,” was a master of popular dance music (see HWM Figure 28.1).
      5. The difference between a serious symphony and a popular song is much greater today than it was in Mozart’s time.
  2. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) (see HWM biography, page 719, and Figure 28.2)
    1. Brahms combined Classicism with Romantic sensibility.
      1. Brahms matured as a composer just as the Classical repertoire became dominant.
      2. He composed in Classical traditions but added new elements in order to appeal to contemporary audiences.
      3. He studied the music from the Renaissance and Baroque, and incorporated elements from these traditions into his works.
      4. He wrote in virtually all of the musical languages of his time.
    2. Biography
      1. Born in Hamburg, Germany, he studied several musical instruments.
      2. He earned money playing at taverns and restaurants, where he became fond of the Hungarian-Gypsy style of music.
      3. Brahms performed as a pianist and directed several musical organizations.
      4. He edited music by numerous Baroque, Classic, and Romantic composers.
      5. Clara Schumann.
        1. In 1853, he met Robert and Clara Schumann and violinist Joseph Joachim, who became his strongest supporters.
        2. Brahms helped take care of the Schumann family so that Clara could resume her career.
        3. Brahms loved Clara, but remained a bachelor throughout his life.
        4. He died less than one year after Clara passed away.
  3. Brahms’s Symphonies
    1. Knowing that any symphony would have to match the standards Beethoven set, Brahms wrote his four symphonies after the age of forty.
      1. Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68 (1876) was completed after twenty years of work.
      2. Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 73 (1877)
      3. Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (1883)
      4. Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98 (1885)
    2. Symphony No. 1 is indebted to Beethoven, but also departs from past traditions.
      1. It has a standard four-movement format, although the third movement is a lyrical intermezzo instead of a scherzo.
      2. Like Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5, it begins in C minor and ends in a triumphant C major.
      3. The overall key scheme often moves through the circle of thirds.
      4. The material in the slow introductions of the first and fourth movements is developed in the allegros, recalling Schumann’s Symphony No. 4.
      5. The hymnlike theme of the finale is similar in mood to Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9.
      6. Conductor Hans von B�low called this work “Beethoven’s Tenth.”
    3. Symphony No. 3
      1. The opening measures illustrate several typical characteristics of Brahms’s music (see HWM Example 28.1).
        1. Wide melodic spans
        2. Cross-relations between major and minor
        3. Metric ambiguity between duple and triple meters
      2. The second theme of the final movement contains a metric conflict between duple and triple meter (see HWM Example 28.2).
    4. Symphony No. 4, finale (see HWM Figure 28.3 and NAWM 132)
      1. The finale is a chaconne or passacaglia, a Baroque form consisting of variations over a repeating bass in triple meter.
        1. The key of E minor recalls Buxtehude’s Ciaccona in E Minor for organ.
        2. The idea of recurring thematic material may be derived from a work by Fran�ois Couperin that Brahms edited for the Couperin complete works.
        3. He may have adapted the bass from an ostinato in the final chorus of a Bach cantata (see example in NAWM 132 commentary).
      2. Another model may have been Bach’s chaconne finale from Partita No. 2 in D Minor for Solo Violin, which Brahms transcribed as a left-hand exercise for piano.
        1. Both works are in minor with a middle section in the parallel major.
        2. In both, variations are often grouped in pairs.
        3. The points of return are marked by the reappearance of the opening idea and texture.
        4. They also share details of figurations.
      3. The use of variations as a finale and the treatment of the theme also recall Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony.
      4. The movement has thirty-one variations on an eight-measure theme and ends with a substantial coda.
      5. Brahms grouped variations into five large sections, suggesting sonata form.
        1. Variations 1-12 (measures 1-96) serve as an exposition.
        2. Variations 13-16 (measures 97-128) form an interlude in 3/2 meter that moves to the parallel major.
        3. Variations 17-23 (measures 129-184), beginning with a variation that recalls the opening, serve as a development section
        4. Variations 24-27 (measures 185-216) serve as the recapitulation, with varied presentations of earlier variations.
        5. The coda (measure 253) is in a faster tempo and freely treats the original theme.
      6. Throughout, Brahms presents variations that are extensions of something we have heard before; Schoenberg called this technique “developing variation.”
  4. Other Works by Brahms
    1. Concertos
      1. Piano Concerto No. 1 in D Minor (1861) is his first major orchestral work.
      2. Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat Major, Op. 83 (1881), with four movements, is his most symphonic conception of the genre.
      3. Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77 (1878) is parallel in seriousness to Beethoven’s Concerto in the same key.
    2. Chamber music
      1. Brahms is the true successor of Beethoven in chamber music.
      2. He composed twenty-four chamber works, of which at least six are masterpieces.
      3. As in his orchestral works, Brahms incorporates classical traditions within his own personal style.
      4. Seven chamber works feature piano and strings, including three piano trios and three piano quartets.
      5. The first movement of the Quintet for Piano and Strings in F Minor. Op. 34 (1864), one of his most popular works, illustrates his technique of developing variation (see HWM Example 28.3).
    3. Piano music
      1. Brahms developed a highly individual musical style.
        1. Full sonority
        2. Broken-chord figuration
        3. Frequent doubling of the melody in octaves, thirds, or sixths
        4. Multiple chordlike appoggiaturas
        5. Frequent use of cross-rhythms
        6. Simple ideas developed into innovative textures
      2. Brahms composed three piano sonatas as a young man (1852-53).
        1. These works are in the tradition of Beethoven.
        2. They incorporate the chromatic harmony of Chopin and Liszt and the songlike style of Schumann.
      3. In his twenties, Brahms focused on variations.
        1. The variations appear as strings of short character pieces based on the formal and harmonic plan of the theme.
        2. Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Handel, Op. 24 (1861) includes evocations of Chopin and Mozart, a variety of other musical styles, and a climactic Beethovenian fugue.
        3. Variations on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 35 (1863) has etudelike qualities.
      4. In his last two decades, Brahms published six collections of intermezzos, rhapsodies, and other short pieces.
        1. These may be his greatest piano works.
        2. Most are in ABA’ forms and have songlike melodies.
    4. Songs
      1. Schubert was the model for Brahms’s songwriting.
        1. The voice dominates.
        2. The piano supports with figuration.
      2. Brahms composed 260 Lieder, many of which are strophic or modified strophic.
      3. Some songs incorporate characteristics of folk songs.
      4. The texts often suggest emotional restraint or an introspective, elegiac mood.
      5. Many of Brahms’s qualities can be seen in the first strophe of Wie Melodien zieht es mir (1886; see HWM Example 28.4).
    5. Choral works
      1. Brahms wrote his choral works for amateur performers.
      2. He arranged German folk songs for chorus and wrote many short unaccompanied songs for women’s, men’s, or mixed voices.
      3. Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem, 1868)
        1. Written for soprano and baritone soloists, chorus and orchestra, this is his greatest choral work (see HWM Figure 28.4).
        2. The German text is not from the Latin Mass, but from the Old Testament, Apocrypha, and New Testament.
        3. Brahms draws upon the traditions of Sch�tz and Bach, but presents them in the colors of nineteenth-century harmony and orchestration.
    6. Reputation
      1. Brahms has been viewed as conservative, but he was a trailblazer.
      2. He was among the first to draw upon both the music of the past and present, a process that has been repeated by numerous composers of the twentieth century.
  5. Franz Liszt
    1. The New German School
      1. The term “New German School” was coined by a music critic in 1859.
        1. He viewed three composers as leaders: Wagner, Liszt, and Berlioz.
        2. Although the latter two were not Germans, Beethoven was their model.
      2. The term helped polarize the division between supporters of Liszt and Wagner and supporters of Brahms, such as the music critic Eduard Hanslick (see HWM Source Reading, page 726).
      3. Among the composers who sided with Wagner and Liszt are Bruckner, Wolf, and Richard Strauss.
    2. Liszt retired from his career as a concert pianist in 1848.
      1. He became court music director at Weimar and focused on composition.
      2. His works then went beyond virtuoso display.
      3. Some of his works reveal a shift towards the classical repertory.
    3. Symphonic poems
      1. Liszt composed twelve symphonic poems between 1848 and 1858.
      2. Each is a one-movement programmatic work for orchestra.
      3. The forms are often closely related to traditional Classical structures.
      4. The program content came from a variety of sources:
        1. Prometheus is from a myth and a poem by Herder.
        2. Mazeppa is taken from a poem by Victor Hugo.
        3. Orfeo ed Euridice pays homage to Gluck’s opera and an Etruscan vase.
      5. Liszt also composed two programmatic symphonies that function like a series of symphonic poems.
        1. Faust Symphony (1854)
        2. Dante Symphony (1856)
      6. Les Pr�ludes (The Preludes, 1854)
        1. This symphonic poem is linked to Alfonse-Marie de Lamartine’s poem of the same title.
        2. Both poem and music follow the same succession of moods.
        3. Liszt unifies the work through thematic transformation (see HWM Example 28.5).
      7. Liszt’s thematic transformation techniques are also evident in his four-movement Piano Concerto No. 1 in E-flat Major (1855).
    4. Piano Sonata in B Minor (1853)
      1. The work is written as one extended movement with four major themes that are transformed in a number of ways.
      2. The piece can be seen as both a gigantic sonata form and a condensed four-movement structure: fast sonata, slow, fugue, and fast finale.
    5. Choral music
      1. The choral works also reflect the accommodation between past and present.
      2. St. Elisabeth (1857-62) and Christus (1866- 72), his most important choral works, derive thematic material from plainchants.
    6. Liszt’s influence
      1. The symphonic poem was adapted by a number of other composers.
      2. His chromatic harmonies helped to form Wagner’s style after 1854.
      3. The even divisions of the octave, such as with the augmented triad, had a strong impact on Russian and French composers.
      4. His thematic transformation parallels Wagner’s use of leitmotives and Brahms’s developing variation.
  6. Anton Bruckner (1824-1896) (see HWM Figure 28.5)
    1. Trained in counterpoint, Bruckner served as organist of the cathedral at Linz and as organist in Vienna from 1867 to his death.
    2. He brought Wagner’s style and ethos into his symphonies and choral music.
    3. Symphonies
      1. Bruckner composed nine numbered symphonies and two unnumbered ones.
      2. Most underwent extensive revisions.
      3. Influences of Beethoven
        1. All are four movements, and none is explicitly programmatic.
        2. Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 was a model in its procedure and purpose.
      4. Influences of Wagner
        1. Large-scale structures
        2. Extended lengths
        3. Lush harmonies
        4. Sequential repetition of entire passages
        5. Huge orchestra
      5. Bruckner’s orchestration is influenced by his experiences as an organist.
      6. Symphony No. 4, first movement (see HWM Example 28.6)
        1. It opens in a similar manner to Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony.
        2. The movement can be seen as a sonata form with continuous development of musical ideas.
    4. Choral music
      1. Bruckner blended modern elements with the influences from the Cecilian movement, which promoted a revival of the sixteenth-century a cappella style.
      2. His motets for unaccompanied choir reflect Cecilian ideas, but they can also include bold harmonic treatment.
      3. The Mass No. 2 in E Minor (1866) is a neo-medieval work for eight-part chorus and fifteen wind instruments.
      4. The sacred works were designed to function in church and on the concert stage.
  7. Hugo Wolf (1860-1903)
    1. Works
      1. Wolf is best known for adapting Wagner’s methods to the German Lied.
      2. He also composed music for piano, chamber ensembles, orchestras, and choruses; he wrote one opera.
    2. Lieder
      1. Wolf composed 250 Lieder, mostly in periods of intense activity between 1887 and 1897.
      2. He published five principal collections of songs, each devoted to a single poet or group, thereby stressing an equality of words and music.
      3. Like Wagner, he worked toward a fusion of poetry and music and of voice and piano.
      4. Lebe wohl! from the M�rike songbook reflects Wagner’s influences (see HWM Example 28.7).
        1. The arioso vocal line has speechlike rhythms.
        2. Continuity is sustained in the piano part.
        3. Chromatic harmonies are inspired by the idiom of Tristan und Isolde; all twelve chromatic notes appear in the first phrase.
  8. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) (see HWM Figure 28.6)
    1. Biography
      1. He was a dominant figure in German musical life.
      2. He was a famous conductor and led most of the world’s best orchestras.
      3. As a composer, he is best remembered for:
        1. Symphonic poems, mostly written before 1900
        2. Operas, mostly written after 1900
        3. Lieder
    2. Symphonic poems
      1. Strauss’s works are modeled after the program music of Berlioz and Liszt.
        1. Colorful orchestration
        2. Thematic transformation
        3. Types of programs, which are often based on literature
      2. Strauss derived his programs from a variety of sources, and his programmatic depictions range from representational to philosophical.
      3. Don Juan was Strauss’s first complete mature work and established his reputation.
        1. Events in the life of Don Juan are depicted, including a graphic sexual scene and his death at the end.
        2. Most of the work evokes moods of boldness and romance.
      4. Till Eulenspiegel is a representational telling of a trickster’s exploits.
        1. Two themes for Till are developed like leitmotives.
        2. The work can be heard with an understanding of the story or as a colorful concert work.
        3. Strauss called the form of the work a “rondo,” referring to the recurrence of the Till themes.
      5. Also Sprach Zarathustra
        1. This work is a musical commentary on Nietzsche’s long prose-poem.
        2. Nietzche suggests that the Christian ethic should be replaced by the ideal of a superman, who is above good and evil.
        3. Much of the work is philosophical, but there are some moments of direct representation.
        4. The opening, made famous in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, was inspired by Zarathurstra’s address to the rising sun in the prologue.
    3. Don Quixote (see excerpt in NAWM 133)
      1. Literary background
        1. This symphonic poem dramatizes Miguel de Cervantes’s novel of 1605.
        2. It depicts the adventures of the knight Don Quixote, his squire Sancho Panza, and his horse Rosinante (see HWM Figure 28.7).
      2. Structure
        1. The opening features two themes, representing Don Quizote and Sancho, followed by ten variations and an epilogue.
        2. The variation structure is loose and builds on Liszt’s technique of thematic transformation.
      3. Themes
        1. Much of the work sounds like chamber music.
        2. Don Quixote is represented by a solo cello, which is joined by a solo violin and English horn.
        3. The bass clarinet and tenor tuba represent Sancho.
        4. Motives in the solo viola suggest Rosinante.
      4. Variation 1
        1. The opening depicts a conversation between cello and bass clarinet.
        2. Tilting windmills can be heard in measures 60-78.
        3. The creaking blades are suggested by the orchestration, which includes col legno effects in the cellos.
        4. Don Quixote is knocked off his horse (measures 71-72), but picks himself up to seek a new adventure.
      5. Variation 2
        1. The strings suggest Don Quixote’s attempts to be bold while the winds ridicule with the Sancho theme.
        2. Fluttertonging in the winds depict the army of sheep that they encounter.

Chapter 27. Opera and Musical Theater in the Later Nineteenth Century

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

The second half of the nineteenth century saw a continuation of strong national traditions in Italian, German, and French opera, the rise of a vibrant Russian school in opera and ballet, and growing traditions of musical theater in other lands. Nationalism was an increasingly important force, linking opera to broader political and cultural currents. Sources for plots varied, from ancient legends to modern love affairs, and from European history to exotic tales in foreign lands. As the market for theatrical music grew larger and more diverse, elite and popular audiences diverged and new forms of comic opera and musical theater emerged to satisfy popular tastes. Verdi and Wagner dominated Italian and German opera respectively, while composers in France, Bohemia, Russia, and elsewhere developed new national styles. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. The Late Nineteenth Century
    1. Industrialization
      1. Europe and the United States became industrial leaders.
      2. Railroads on both continents transported people and goods rapidly.
      3. New technologies, such as the electric lightbulb and telephone, altered daily life and created new industries.
      4. Life expectancy and population numbers rose dramatically.
      5. The modern corporation emerged.
      6. Mass consumption became a driving force for the economy.
    2. Revolutions of 1848
      1. France toppled King Louis Philippe and established the short-lived Second Republic (see HWM Figure 27.1).
      2. Revolts also took place in Germany, Italy, and Austro-Hungary.
      3. For the most part, these revolutions changed little.
    3. Political reforms
      1. Greater freedoms were granted to people in Europe and America.
      2. Russia abolished serfdom in 1861; the United States abolished slavery in 1865.
      3. Workers gained new rights, and women demanded equal treatment.
      4. Expanded exploration came at the expense of indigenous populations.
    4. Nationalism
      1. Throughout Europe, people attempted to unify themselves into nations based on a common language, shared culture, and other characteristics.
      2. In France, Britain, and Russia, nationalism supported the status quo.
      3. In Germany and Italy, unification movements were strong.
        1. Germany united under Bismarck between 1864 and 1871.
        2. Italy unified under Victor Emmanuel II in 1859-61.
      4. While a common heritage helped unify Germany and Italy, the variety of ethnic groups worked against political unity in Austria-Hungary.
      5. Music played a role in promoting nationalism, and nationalism had a profound impact on music (see HWM Music in Context, page 682, and Figure 27.2).
    5. Other themes in the arts
      1. Realism was a strong movement in art and literature.
      2. Exoticism, fantasy, and the distant past provided escapes from modern city life.
      3. Impressionism depicted outdoor scenes.
    6. Opera
      1. Strong national schools continued in Italy, France, and Germany.
      2. Nationalism linked opera to political and cultural currents.
      3. A core repertory of operas developed.
        1. The number of new operas declined as composers took more time to write.
        2. Originality became more important than conventions.
      4. Singers had to have more powerful voices as opera houses became larger and orchestras louder.
      5. Melodies were more syllabic and less ornamented.
      6. Subjects ranged from fantastic to realistic.
      7. Electricity made it possible to dim the house lights.
      8. It gradually became unacceptable to talk during performances.
  2. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) (see HWM biography, page 684, and Figure 27.3)
    1. Verdi was the dominant opera composer in Italy for fifty years after Donizetti.
    2. Biography
      1. Verdi was born in northern Italy, the son of an innkeeper.
      2. He worked as a church organist at age nine and later became music director in Busseto.
      3. After the death of his first wife, he went to Milan to pursue a career as an opera composer.
      4. Verdi composed twenty-six operas, beginning when he was twenty-six and ending when he was eighty.
      5. Verdi’s name became a patriotic rallying cry: “Viva Verdi” was an acronym for “Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re d’Italia” (Long live Victor Emmanuel, king of Italy)
      6. Although he supported the unification movement, nationalism was not an overt element of his operas.
    3. Opera characteristics
      1. He composed memorable melodies that captured the character and feeling of the drama.
      2. Verdi preferred stories that had been successful plays, including works by Shakespeare, Schiller, and Victor Hugo.
      3. Verdi built upon the conventions of Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti.
      4. Like Donizetti, Verdi often used reminiscence motives.
    4. Early operas
      1. Nabucco (1842) was his first triumph and launched his career.
      2. Luisa Miller (1849) reveals a keen sense of psychological portrayal.
      3. In the early 1850s, he entered a productive period that includes:
        1. Rigoletto (1851)
        2. Il trovatore (1853)
        3. La traviata (1853)
      4. In Il trovatore and La traviata, the overture is replaced by a briefer prelude.
      5. La traviata is based on a novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils.
        1. Unique among his operas, it is set in the mid-nineteenth century.
        2. The work is realistic in its characters, situations, and emotions.
    5. La traviata, Act III, excerpt (NAWM 127)
      1. The scene follows Rossini’s standard structure for duets.
        1. Scene (recitative)
        2. Tempo d’attacco (opening section)
        3. Slow cantabile
        4. Tempo di mezzo
        5. Fast cabaletta
      2. Verdi focuses on three keys: E major (tempo d’attacco), A-flat major (cantabile), and C major (cabaletta).
      3. Opening scene
        1. The orchestra accompanies the recitative.
        2. The dialogue is set in short phrases above a continuous melodic flow in the orchestra.
      4. Tempo d’attacco (measure 35)
        1. A Rossiniesque crescendo builds to a climax as the lovers embrace.
        2. The ensuing dialogue features tuneful vocal melodies and a simple accompaniment.
      5. Cantabile (measure 75) (see HWM Example 27.1)
        1. The form is AABB with coda.
        2. In the A section, Alfredo and Violetta sing a simple and direct melody that resembles a slow waltz.
        3. In the B section, Alfredo sings grandly of the future, and Violetta sings a light chromatic melody of suffering and recovering.
      6. Tempo di mezzo (measure 177)
        1. Hope gives way to despair; Violetta will not recover.
        2. Stark contrasts of style capture the changing moods.
      7. Cabaletta (measure 227)
        1. The form is AABA’ with coda.
        2. Violetta voices her desperation, and Alfredo tries to calm her.
        3. The coda builds to a climax of despair.
    6. Middle-period operas
      1. Verdi wrote only six new operas in the next two decades.
        1. The action becomes more continuous.
        2. Solos, ensembles, and choruses are freely combined.
        3. Harmonies are more daring.
        4. The orchestra is treated with great originality.
      2. Les vepres siciliennes (The Sicilian Vespers, 1855), based on a libretto by Eugene Scribe, is a grand opera inspired by Meyerbeer that blends French and Italian characteristics.
      3. Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball, 1859) introduces comic roles.
      4. Aida (1871) was commissioned for the Cairo opera.
        1. Verdi chose an Egyptian subject, which allowed him to introduce exotic color and spectacle.
        2. Verdi officially retired after this opera.
    7. Late operas
      1. Giulio Ricordi persuaded him to compose two more operas, both on librettos by Arrigo Boito (1842-1918).
      2. Otello (1887)
        1. The flow of the music is unbroken in each of the acts.
        2. The traditional schemes are still present, but they are arranged in larger scene-complexes.
        3. The orchestra develops themes in a more symphonic manner.
      3. Falstaff (1893) (see HWM Figure 27.4)
        1. This pinnacle of opera buffa is based on Shakespeare’s The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry IV.
        2. The final act ends in a fugue for the entire cast.
  3. Later Italian Composers
    1. Verismo
      1. This operatic movement parallels realism in literature.
        1. It presents everyday people, generally from the lower classes.
        2. The stories often depict brutal or sordid events.
      2. Harps
        1. Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry, 1890) by Pietro Mascagni
        2. I Pagliacci (The Clowns, 1892) by Ruggero Leoncavallo
    2. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
      1. Puccini is the most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi.
      2. Puccini blended Verdi’s vocal style with Wagner’s approach, including the use of leitmotives (see Wagner discussion in section IV below).
      3. Manon Lescaut (1893), his third opera, brought him international fame.
      4. Other major works
        1. La boh�me (1896)
        2. Tosca (1900)
        3. Madama Butterfly (1904)
        4. Turandot (1926)
      5. Puccini’s scenes are more fluid than in earlier operas.
      6. The blurred distinction between aria and recitative can be seen in an excerpt from La boh�me (see HWM Example 27.2).
  4. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) (see HWM biography, page 690, and Figure 27.5)
    1. Wagner was a crucial figure in nineteenth-century culture and one of the most influential musicians of all times.
      1. He brought German Romantic opera to a new height.
      2. He created a new genre, the music drama.
      3. His rich chromatic idiom influenced later composers.
    2. Biography
      1. He was born in Leipzig, Germany, the ninth child of a police actuary.
      2. Wagner began writing operas in the 1830s and held positions with several regional companies.
      3. He worked as a music journalist in Paris from 1839 to 1842.
      4. He was appointed second Kapellmeister for the king of Saxony in Dresden in 1843.
      5. Wagner supported the 1848-49 insurrection and had to flee.
      6. In Switzerland he wrote his most important essays.
      7. He received support from a new patron, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, in 1864.
      8. Although married to Minna (1836-66), he had relationships with other women, including Mathilde Wesendonck.
      9. In 1870, he married Cosima von B�low, a child of Franz Liszt.
    3. Writings (see HWM Source Reading. page 692)
      1. In a series of essays, Wagner argued that music should serve dramatic expression. His essays include:
        1. The Artwork of the Future (1850)
        2. Opera and Drama (1851, revised 1868)
      2. Beethoven
        1. Wagner felt that Beethoven had exhausted instrumental music.
        2. The Ninth Symphony showed the path to the future with its union of music and words.
        3. He saw himself as the true successor to Beethoven.
      3. Gesamtkunstwerk
        1. Wagner felt that poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music should work together to create a Gesmatkunstwerk (total or collective artwork).
        2. The words related the events and situations, while the orchestra conveyed the inner drama.
      4. Anti-Semitism
        1. Wagner wrote about politics and morals in several essays, including the anti-Semitic polemic Das Judentum in der Musik (Jewishness in Music).
        2. He attacked both Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn for being Jewish and lacking national roots, although he admired and was influenced by both.
    4. Operas
      1. Rienzi (1842), a five-act grand opera, was his first major success.
      2. Die fliegende Holl�nder (The Flying Dutchman, 1843)
        1. A Romantic opera in the tradition of Weber, the work is based on a German legend.
        2. Wagner wrote the libretto.
        3. Themes from one of the vocal ballads appear in the overture and recur throughout the opera, functioning like reminiscence motives.
      3. Tannh�user (1845)
        1. The story is also adopted from Germanic legends.
        2. Semi-declamatory vocal writing appears in this work, which would become Wagner’s normal type of text-setting.
      4. Lohengrin (1850)
        1. Medieval legend and German folklore combine in a moralizing and symbolic plot.
        2. The declamatory style is expanded, and recurring themes are more fully developed.
    5. Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelungs)
      1. Wagner composed four music dramas based on Teutonic and Nordic legends.
        1. Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold)
        2. Die Walk�re (The Valkyrie)
        3. Siegfried
        4. G�tterd�mmerung (The Twilight of the Gods)
      2. Wagner wrote the first two operas and part of Siegfried by 1857; he completed the rest in 1874.
      3. Wagner built his own theater in Bayreuth, where he gave the first performance of the Ring cycle in 1876 (see HWM Figure 27.6).
    6. Other music dramas
      1. Tristan und Isolde (1857-59)
        1. Wagner wrote the libretto, basing it on a thirteenth-century romance by Gottfired von Strassburg.
        2. It became one of Wagner’s most influential works.
      2. Die Meistersinger von N�rnberg (The Meistersingers of Nuremberg, 1862-67)
      3. Parsifal (1882), his last work, uses diatonic and chromatic music to suggest redemption and corruption respectively.
    7. The leitmotiv
      1. A leitmotiv is a musical theme or motive associated with a person, thing, emotion, or idea in the drama.
      2. All of the music dramas are organized around these themes.
      3. Use of leitmotives
        1. The meaning of the motive is usually established the first time it is heard.
        2. The leitmotiv recurs whenever its subject appears or when it is mentioned.
        3. A leitmotiv can be transformed and varied as the plot develops.
        4. Similarities among leitmotives may indicate connections between the subjects they portray.
      4. Leitmotives differ from reminiscence motives.
        1. Leitmotives are for the most part short and characterize their subjects at various levels, as seen in Example 27.3d.
        2. Leitmotives are the basic material of the score and are used constantly.
        3. The musical material surrounding the leitmotives and their developments creates a sense of an “endless melody.”
    8. Tristan und Isolde, Act 1, scene 5 (NAWM 128)
      1. The scene has a continuous musical flow.
        1. The orchestra maintains the continuity.
        2. The melodies vary from speechlike to soaring and passionate.
      2. The passage uses a number of leitmotives (see HWM Example 27.3).
        1. Tristan’s honor is introduced at measure 38 and is developed throughout the section.
        2. The melodic idea at measure 64 is associated with the love potion.
        3. Measures 66-69 contain the “Tristan chord,” which was the first chord in the opera.
        4. The rising chromatic motive in measures 69-70 represents longing.
      3. A pantomime follows as the potion takes control; the actors move and gesture at specific moments in the music.
      4. A climax is reached at measure 102 with a deceptive cadence.
      5. A new melody begins in the violas at measure 103, joined by the voices calling to each other.
      6. Following interruptions from the sailors and Brang�ne, the lovers’ dialogue uses many of the above motives.
      7. A new leitmotiv appears at measure 160.
      8. The music hailing the king begins to penetrate the lovers’ consciousness at measure 192.
    9. Wagner’s influence
      1. More has been written about Wagner than any other musician.
      2. His view of the total artwork affected all later opera.
      3. His emphasis on musical continuity was also important.
      4. A master of orchestral color, he influenced many composers.
      5. Painters and poets found inspiration in Wagner.
      6. Unfortunately, Wagner’s anti-Semitic writings also found followers, including the Nazis in Germany.
  5. France
    1. Although there was no dominant composer there, Paris remained a center for producing new works.
      1. Because of state subsidies, many of the works were by French composers, but nationalism was not reflected in their plots.
      2. Musical theaters presented a variety of musical entertainments.
    2. Grand opera
      1. The genre remained prominent through the 1860s.
        1. L’Africaine (1865) by Meyerbeer
        2. Don Carlos (1867) by Verdi uses the French form and Italian language.
      2. The genre began to fade thereafter and blend with other types of serious opera.
    3. Ballet
      1. Ballet had long been a part of grand opera, but it became popular as an independent genre (see HWM Chapter 26).
      2. Leo Delibes (1836-91) was the leading composer for ballet.
        1. Copp�lia (1870)
        2. Sylvia (1876)
    4. Lyric opera
      1. A new operatic genre called lyric opera grew out of the romantic type of op�ra comique.
      2. The genre is named after the Th�atre Lyrique, founded in 1851.
      3. Like op�ra comique, its main appeal is through melody.
      4. The subject matter is usually romantic drama or fantasy.
      5. The scale is larger than op�ra comique, but smaller than grand opera.
      6. Faust by Charles Gounod (1818-1893)
        1. This lyric opera was the most frequently performed opera in Europe and the Americas in the last third of the nineteenth century.
        2. It was first performed as an op�ra comique, with spoken dialogue, and was later arranged with recitatives.
      7. Other popular lyric operas include:
        1. Rom�o and Juliette by Gounod (1867)
        2. Works by Jules Massenet (1842-1912)
          1. Manon (1884)
          2. Werther (1892)
          3. Tha�s (1894)
    5. Carmen by Bizet (1875)
      1. The opera was originally an op�ra comique with spoken dialogue.
      2. The dialogue was later set to recitative.
      3. Set in Spain, the opera combines exoticism and realism.
      4. The plot is a dark tale of seduction and murder.
      5. Carmen, a gypsy, works in a cigarette factory and lives for pleasure (see HWM Figure 27.7).
      6. Bizet created a Spanish character with his music.
        1. He borrowed three Spanish melodies, including the famous habanera.
        2. Bizet added other elements of gypsy and Spanish music.
        3. The augmented second in the fate motive suggests a gypsy origin (see HWM Example 27.4).
      7. Carmen seduces Don Jose by singing a seguidilla (NAWM 129).
        1. The seguidilla is a type of Spanish song in a fast triple meter.
        2. A recurring refrain frames the song.
        3. The accompaniment imitates the strumming of a guitar.
        4. The melody contains melismas and grace notes.
        5. The harmony suggests the Phrygian mode, a feature of Spanish music.
      8. The opera provoked outrage because of Carmen’s lack of morality, but it eventually became one of the most beloved of all operas.
    6. Op�ra bouffe
      1. A new genre called op�ra bouffe emerged in the 1850s.
      2. The genre emphasized the smart, witty, and satirical elements of comic opera.
      3. Its composers used their freedom from government control to satirize French society.
      4. The founder was Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880).
        1. Orph�e aus enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld, 1858) introduced a can-can dance for the gods.
        2. Offenbach influenced comic opera in England, Vienna, and the United States.
        3. His music has a deceptively na�ve quality that satirizes opera and society.
      5. His music has a deceptively na�ve quality that satirizes opera and society.
    7. Popular music theaters
      1. Cabarets, such as the Chat Noir (Black Cat, opened 1881)
        1. These nightclubs offered a variety of serious and comic entertainment.
        2. They promoted innovation and brought together artists and the public.
      2. Caf�-concerts featured food, beverage, and musical entertainment.
      3. Music halls, such as the Folies-Berg�re and Moulin Rouge, offered revues, featuring a series of dances, songs, comedies and other acts, usually with some common theme.
  6. Russia
    1. Nationalism
      1. A visiting Italian troupe performed the first opera in Russia in 1731.
      2. In the eighteenth century, most of the operas were composed and performed by foreigners.
      3. A permanent national company was established at the Imperial Court in St. Petersburg in 1755, and it gave the first opera in Russian.
      4. The czar used opera as a tool of propaganda for his absolutist government.
    2. Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857)
      1. Glinka was the first Russian composer to be recognized internationally.
      2. A Life for the Tsar (1836)
        1. This pro-government historical drama established Glinka’s reputation.
        2. This is the first Russian opera that is sung throughout.
        3. The recitative and melodic writing has a distinct Russian character.
      3. Ruslan and Lyudmila (1842)
        1. Glinka’s second opera is based on an Aleksander Pushkin poem.
        2. The music features whole-tone scales, chromaticism, and dissonance.
    3. Czar Alexander II freed the serfs in 1861 and sought to modernize Russia.
      1. Russia became split.
        1. Nationalists, or “Slavophiles,” idealized Russia’s distinctiveness.
        2. Internationalists, or “westernizers,” sought to adapt Western technology and education.
      2. The split affected composers, although all were in debt to Western traditions.
      3. The nationalists rejected formal Western training.
      4. Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894), a virtuoso pianist and founder of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1862), was a leading internationalist.
    4. Piotr Il’yich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) (see HWM Figure 27.8)
      1. Tchaikovsky studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and taught at the Moscow conservatory.
      2. His patron was a wealthy widow, Nadezhda von Meck.
      3. He sought to reconcile nationalist and internationalist tendencies.
      4. Eugene Onegin (1879) is based on a Pushkin story.
        1. A germ motive in the prelude generates numerous themes
        2. The chorus has folklike music, and the soloists sing in a Russian style.
      5. The Queen of Spades (1890) is also based on a Pushkin story.
      6. Tchaikovsky’s ballets combine hummable melodies with colorful orchestrations, which are well suited to his fairy-tale subjects.
        1. Swan Lake (1876)
        2. The Sleeping Beauty (1889)
        3. The Nutcracker (1892)
    5. The Mighty Handful
      1. A group of five composers stood against the professionalism of the conservatories.
        1. Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)
        2. Aleksander Borodin (1833-1887)
        3. C�sar Cui (1835-1918)
        4. Modest Musorgsky (1839-1881)
        5. Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
      2. Only Balakirev had conventional training in music, but they all studied Western music on their own (see HWM Source Reading, page 703).
      3. They incorporated aspects of Russian folk song, modal and exotic scales, and folk polyphony.
      4. Balakirev, the leader of the circle, wrote little for the stage.
      5. Cui composed fourteen operas, but none entered the permanent repertory.
      6. Prince Igor is the major work of Borodin, a professional chemist who had little time to compose.
        1. It was completed after his death by Rimsky-Korsakov.
        2. Russian characters in the opera are given folk song material.
        3. The Polovtsians, from central Asia, have an exotic vocal style with melismas, chromatics, and augmented seconds.
        4. The Polovtsian Dances from Act II are frequently performed separately.
    6. Modest Musorgsky (see HWM Figure 27.9)
      1. Musorgsky, who studied with Balakirev, was the most original of the Mighty Handful.
      2. He worked as a clerk in the civil service.
      3. Principal stageworks
        1. Boris Godunov was based on a Pushkin play.
        2. Khovanshchina (The Khovansky Affair) was completed by Rimsky-Korsakov.
      4. The realism of Russian literature is reflected in Boris Godunov.
    7. Coronation scene from Boris Godunov (see NAWM 130, HWM Figure 27.10, and Example 27.5)
      1. The vocal melody is sometimes speechlike.
        1. The text is treated syllabically, and the music follows the natural accents.
        2. The melody sometimes recites on one or two notes (measures 40-42 and 94-97).
        3. Operatic recitative appears in measures 134-136.
      2. Much of the singing is a fluid arioso similar to Russian folk songs.
        1. Narrow range
        2. Repetition of short motives
        3. Tendency to rise at beginnings of phrases and slowly sink to a cadence
      3. The opera is built from large blocks of material.
      4. The scene opens with alternating dominant seventh chords with roots a tritone apart.
        1. Ostinatos in winds and strings overlay the harmonies.
        2. The passage is repeated with the pealing of bells (measure 21).
      5. After Prince Shuisky’s cheer, the people sing one of the few genuine folk melodies ever used by Musorgsky.
      6. The tune is developed and contrasted with other material.
      7. Musorgsky’s treatment of harmony was influential.
        1. The music is tonal, but his progressions are novel.
        2. The principal key of the scene is C.
        3. The chords accompanying Prince Shuisky do not function as a normal harmonic progression.
        4. The folk song harmonization (measure 50) is the first functional progression in the scene.
    8. Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov
      1. Rimsky-Korsakov studied with Balakirev and other private teachers.
      2. He had a career in the Russian Navy, and became a professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1871.
      3. He was an active orchestra conductor and a master of orchestration.
      4. As professor and conductor, he championed the works of Glinka and other Russian nationalists.
      5. He wrote a harmony treatise and taught some important students, including Glazunov and Stravinsky.
      6. He edited two collections of folk songs and incorporated folk tunes into his own compositions.
      7. Rimsky-Korsakov completed fifteen operas.
        1. Sadko (1895-97)
        2. Tsar Saltan (1899-1900)
        3. The Golden Cockerel (1906-7) alternates diatonic music for the real world with chromatic music for the supernatural world.
      8. Rimsky-Korsakov used both whole-tone and octatonic scale systems (see HWM Example 27.6).
        1. Both systems have a limited number of transpositions.
        2. Both lack a strong leading tone, which creates an ethereal quality.
      9. The octatonic scale and folklike melody can be seen in the second scene of Sadko (see HWM Example 27.7).
  7. Opera in Other Nations
    1. Bohemia (now Czech Republic; see also HWM Chapter 29)
      1. Bohemia was an Austrian crown land, and German was the official language.
      2. Mainstream opera was performed in Prague, including the premiere of Mozart’s Don Giovanni.
      3. A movement to promote Czech language in the theater began in the 1860s.
        1. Smetana composed eight operas in Czech.
        2. Smetana created a Czech national style with folklike tunes and dance rhythms, while avoiding Italian and Germanic operatic conventions.
        3. The Bartered Bride (1866) was an international sensation.
      4. Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
        1. Dvo㎭k composed twelve operas, some of which are based on Czech legends and Slavic history.
        2. Dmitrij (1882, revised 1894) is a historical drama influenced by Meyerbeer and Wagner.
        3. Rusalka (1900) is a fairy-tale opera that alternates between a diatonic style for world of humans and a fantastic style for the supernatural.
      5. Anton�n Dvo㎭k (1841-1904)
    2. Poland
      1. Poland was ruled by Russia, and opera was part of its national cultural revival.
      2. Halka (1848), by Stanislaw Moniuszko (1819-1872), inaugurated the movement.
    3. Spain
      1. Although politically independent, Spain adopted the musical styles of France, Italy, and Germany.
      2. Felipe Pedrell (1841-1922) sparked a nationalist revival with editions of sixteenth-century Spanish composers and with his operas, such as Los Pirineos (The Pyrenees, 1891).
    4. Britain
      1. Britain was dominated by foreign opera, despite numerous nationalist movements.
      2. Ethel Smyth (1858-1944) composed six operas, including The Wreckers (1904).
    5. The New World
      1. The New York Metropolitan Opera Company opened in 1883 and performed European opera.
      2. Antonio Carlos Gomes (1836-1896)
        1. A Brazilian, he was the first internationally recognized opera composer from the Americas.
        2. His operas in Portuguese were not successful, but his later works in Italian, including his masterwork Il Guarany (1870), were highly acclaimed.
    6. Operetta
      1. Lighter forms of musical theater flourished in nearly every country.
      2. Operetta was a type of light opera with spoken dialogue.
      3. Modeled after the op�ra bouffe of Offenbach, it could be both funny and romantic.
      4. Johann Strauss the Younger (1825-1899) from Vienna created the popular Die Fledermaus (The Bat, 1874).
      5. In England, Gilbert (librettist, 1836-1911) and Sullivan (composer, 1842-1900) created a string of popular successes.
        1. HMS Pinafore (1848)
        2. The Pirates of Penzance (1879)
        3. The Mikado (1885)
      6. When the foeman bares his steel from The Pirates of Penzance (NAWM 131) illustrates the satirical humor of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.
        1. The police, given martial dotted rhythms, pretend their clubs are trumpets, singing “Tarantara!” like boys playing at soldiers.
        2. The melodies of Mabel and the sergeant and many of the later actions and singing mock the traditions of tragic opera.
    7. Other types of musical theater
      1. Diverse musical entertainments could be found throughout Europe.
      2. The United States also featured a variety of musical theater.
        1. European opera was heard in several major cities.
        2. Minstrel shows continued, including all-black troupes.
        3. Operettas were imported from Europe, and Americans composed new operettas, such as El Capitan by John Philip Sousa (1854-1932).
        4. The Black Crook (1866), a pastiche that combined melodrama with a visiting French ballet troupe, was a tremendous success.
        5. Evangeline (1874) by Edward E. Rice has been described as the first musical comedy.
    8. Variety shows became more respectable, and vaudeville, created by Tony Pastor, became a dominant type of theatrical entertainment.
  8. Music for the Stage and Its Audiences
    1. Standard opera repertory
      1. Verdi and Wagner created works that were never surpassed.
      2. Their operas have achieved a permanent place in opera repertory.
      3. Excerpts from Wagner’s operas have also become part of the standard repertory of orchestral concerts.
      4. Puccini is the only Italian after Verdi to maintain an international reputation.
      5. Traditional operas by a number of other composers have entered the permanent repertory.
    2. Nationalism
      1. Wagner obscured his nationalism with his claim to universality.
      2. Composers from “peripheral” countries used nationalism that was effective in their own countries, but generally did not win international recognition.
    3. Audiences began to split between elite and popular musical theater.
      1. Verdi’s operas appealed both to the elite and to the general public.
      2. Wagner aimed at only the elite.
      3. Popular genres, such as operetta and vaudeville, became increasingly more important.

Chapter 26. Romantic Opera and Musical Theater to Midcentury

Chapter Outline

 
 

 

While purely instrumental music gained prestige, opera continued to be a central part of musical life, especially in Italy and France. Opera served as elite entertainment and also as the source of music that was popular with audiences of all classes and professions. Composers followed national trends, even while they developed new forms and approaches and borrowed ideas across national boundaries. Italian composers dominated the field, but new types of opera that were cultivated in France and Germany also exercised a lasting influence. In addition, a lively operatic life emerged in the Americas, centered on the performance of European operas. At the same time, a new form of musical theater-the minstrel show-sprang up in the United States and became the first musical export from North America to Europe. 

Chapter Outline: 

  1. The Roles of Opera
    1. General trends
      1. Opera played a central role in musical life, especially in Italy and France.
      2. Opera was both an elite entertainment and a popular diversion for all classes.
      3. Composers continued to follow national trends.
        1. Italian composers dominated.
        2. New types of opera were cultivated in France and Germany and became lasting influences.
      4. America
        1. A lively operatic life centered on performances of European opera.
        2. The minstrel show sprang up in the United States and became the first American music to be exported to Europe.
    2. Opera enjoyed a golden age in the first half of the nineteenth century.
      1. New opera houses appeared throughout Europe and the New World.
      2. Most operas were run for profit by an impresario, usually supported by the government or private sources.
      3. Members of the aristocracy and middle class attended opera as a sign of their social status.
      4. Performances of excerpts helped to popularize opera.
        1. Amateurs, singing from piano reductions, performed individual numbers in salons.
        2. Operatic selections were transcribed for solo piano.
        3. Overtures and arias appeared in concerts.
        4. Operas were parodied in popular theater.
        5. Café orchestras and even barrel organs played opera melodies.
      5. Operatic stories varied considerably, but they appealed to the middle class by addressing issues that spoke to them.
      6. As the music became the most important element of opera, the composer increasingly became a dominant force.
      7. By 1850, a permanent repertory of operas began to emerge.
  2. Italian Opera
    1. Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) (see HWM biography, page 661, and Figure 26.1)
      1. Rossini may have been the most famous composer in Europe in the 1820s.
      2. He is primarily known for his operas.
        1. Tancredi and L’Italiana in Algeria (The Italian Woman in Algiers), both from 1813, established his international reputation.
        2. In 1815, he became musical director of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples.
        3. Il Barbieri de Siviglia (The Barber of Seville, 1816), a comic opera, was his most successful work.
        4. Rossini moved to Paris and became director of the Th�atre Italien.
        5. Guillaume Tell (William Tell, 1829) is his last major opera.
      3. During the last forty years of his life, he wrote no more operas.
        1. His life was marred by illness, and he ate to excess.
        2. He wrote witty piano pieces and songs that influenced French composers.
      4. The popularity of his operas is partially due to his ability to blend aspects of opera buffa and opera seria.
      5. The conventions that he helped to create for Italian opera would endure for over fifty years.
      6. Rossini helped establish bel canto.
        1. Literally “beautifully singing,” the term refers to lyrical lines, effortless vocal technique, and florid delivery.
        2. In bel canto, melody is the most important element.
    2. Rossini’s operatic style
      1. Rossini combines tunefulness with snappy rhythms and clear phrases.
      2. The sparse orchestration lightly supports the voice and has occasional solos for individual instruments for color.
      3. Harmonic schemes are simple and original; he favored third-related keys.
      4. A popular device was the “Rossini crescendo,” created by gradually getting louder as a single phrase was repeated.
    3. Rossini’s scene structure
      1. Rossini distributed the action throughout each act by constructing scenes (scena) rather than confining the action to recitatives.
      2. Scenes have several standard sections (see HWM Figure 26.2).
        1. Instrumental introduction
        2. Recitative accompanied by orchestra
        3. Cantabile, the slow and lyrical section of the aria, generally expresses calm moods
        4. In some, an interlude called tempo di mezzo (middle movement) interrupts and changes the mood
        5. Cabaletta, the final and more active part of the aria, is usually repeated in whole or in part with embellishments.
        6. The finale brings together many characters.
      3. The cantabile and cabaletta together constitute the aria; some scenes contain nothing else.
      4. A duet or ensemble may follow a similar pattern, but it was often preceded by a tempo d’attacco, in which the characters trade melodic phrases.
    4. Una voce poco fa from The Barber of Seville (NAWM 125)
      1. Rosina sings of her love for the count and her determination to outwit her guardian (see HWM Example 26.1).
      2. This is an entrance aria, which was known as a cavatina.
      3. The orchestral introduction presents ideas that will be heard later.
      4. Rosina begins with a cantabile.
        1. The opening resembles recitative, which suggests her tentativeness.
        2. Coloratura, florid figuration, suggests her passion for Lindoro.
        3. She vows to evade her guardian in a comic patter song.
        4. The coloratura music addressing Lindoro returns.
      5. The cabaletta follows immediately.
        1. The various emotional sides of Rosina are depicted.
        2. A Rossini crescendo increases the excitement.
        3. The music for the last three lines is repeated.
    5. Rossini’s serious operas
      1. Rossini is best known for his comic operas, but his serious operas were equally significant in his day.
        1. Otello (1816)
        2. Mosè in Egitto (Moses in Egypt, 1818)
        3. Guillaume Tell (William Tell, 1829)
      2. Guillaume Tell
        1. The opera had five hundred performances in Paris during Rossini’s lifetime.
        2. The story dealt with revolution and was subject to censorship.
        3. Rossini includes choruses, ensembles, dances, processions, and atmospheric instrumental interludes in the manner of French grand opera.
    6. Rossini’s overtures
      1. His overtures have found an independent life in the concert hall.
      2. Most consist of a slow introduction and a fast sonata form without a development section.
      3. The overture to Guillaume Tell, his most famous overture, has four sections.
        1. A slow pastoral introduction
        2. A musical depiction of a storm
        3. Another pastoral featuring a ranz de vaches (a Swiss cowherd’s call) played by an English horn.
        4. A galloping allegro that was used as the theme for The Lone Ranger.
    7. Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)
      1. Bellini came into prominence after Rossini retired.
      2. He preferred dramas of passion with gripping action.
      3. Action was not limited to recitative, but was also built into arias.
      4. Bellini composed ten operas, including:
        1. La Sonnambula (The Sleepwalker, 1831)
        2. Norma (1831)
        3. I Puritani (The Puritans, 1835)
      5. His style is characterized by long, sweeping, highly embellished, intensely emotional melodies.
      6. Casta diva (Chaste Goddess) from Norma (see HWM Example 26.2)
        1. The form of this scene follows the structure established by Rossini.
        2. In each section, the chorus plays an important role in creating a sense of continuous action.
    8. Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
      1. Donizetti composed over seventy operas, about one hundred songs, several symphonies, and a number of other vocal works.
        1. Lucia di lammermoor (1835), a serious opera
        2. La Filled u regiment (The Daughter of the Regiment, 1840), an opéra comique
        3. Don Pasquale (1843), an opera buffa
      2. Donizetti’s melodies captured the sense of a character, situation, or feeling.
      3. By averting cadences, he avoided applause until a scene was finished.
      4. The music often has a seamless continuity.
      5. The “mad scene” from Lucia di Lammermoor has an unbroken flow of events.
        1. A chorus opens with a commentary on Lucia’s appearance after she has killed her husband.
        2. The orchestra then plays foreboding music.
        3. Lucia’s recitative with flute ends with a florid cadenza.
        4. The flutes and clarinets recall a previous love theme, a device that is known as a reminiscence motive.
        5. The tempo di mezzo section is a trio.
        6. The cabaletta begins, but the chorus and trio break in.
        7. Lucia ends the scene in a faint.
    9. Classics of Italian opera
      1. Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti were performed throughout Europe and America.
      2. Many of their arias became popular tunes that were known in large segments of society.
      3. Several of their operas became permanent classics of the operatic repertoire.
  3. French Opera
    1. Opera in the early nineteenth century
      1. Opera remained the most prestigious musical genre in France.
      2. Napoleon allowed only three theaters to present opera.
        1. The Opéra, which primarily showed tragedies, was the most prestigious.
        2. The Opéra-Comique gave operas with spoken dialogue.
        3. The Théatre Italien presented Italian operas.
      3. Other theaters presented a variety of theatrical works often using music.
      4. A new building for the Opéra theater was built in 1821 during the Restoration (see HWM Figure 26.3).
      5. After the “July Revolution” of 1830, the government continued to subsidize opera.
    2. Grand opera
      1. Grand opera appealed to the middle class.
      2. Spectacle was as important as music (see HWM Figure 26.4).
        1. Machinery
        2. Ballets
        3. Choruses
        4. Crowd scenes
      3. The leaders of grand opera were librettist Eug�ne Scribe and composer Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864).
      4. Meyerbeer, born to a German-Jewish family in Germany, established the genre with two works:
        1. Robert le diable (Robert the Devil, 1831)
        2. Les Huguenots (1836)
      5. Les Huguenots typifies grand opera.
        1. Five acts
        2. Large cast
        3. Dramatic scenery and lighting effects
        4. Tragic story set in sixteenth-century France
        5. Combination of entertaining spectacle and glorious singing, as exemplified by the closing scene of Act II
      6. Other grand operas
        1. Guillaume Tell (1829) by Rossini
        2. La Juive (The Jewess, 1835) by Jacques Halévy
        3. Don Carlos (1867) by Verdi
        4. Rienzi (1842) by Wagner
      7. Les Troyens (1856-58) by Berlioz has elements of grand opera and the traditions of Lully.
        1. Berlioz created the libretto from Virgil’s Aeneid.
        2. He condensed the narrative in a series of powerful scene-complexes that incorporate ballets, processions, and other musical numbers.
    3. Opéra comique
      1. Differences from grand opera
        1. Opéra comique used spoken dialogue instead of recitative.
        2. It was less pretentious and required fewer singers.
        3. The plots presented comedy or semiserious drama.
      2. In the early nineteenth century, there were two kinds of op�ra comique, romantic and comedy.
    4. Ballet
      1. Ballet had been popular in France since the seventeenth century.
      2. Marie Taglioni introduced a new style called Romantic ballet (see HWM Figure 26.5).
        1. Ballerinas were preeminent and moved with lightness.
        2. They wore translucent skirts and shoes that allowed them to stand en pointe.
        3. Taglioni introduced the new ballet to Russia, Europe, and North America.
      3. Composers for Romantic ballet fit the music to the choreography.
      4. Giselle (1841) by Adolphe Adam, one of ballet’s highlights, uses recurring motives to underscore the progress of the drama.
  4. German Opera
    1. General
      1. The interaction between music and literature was strong in German-speaking regions.
      2. Singspiel integrated romantic elements from French opera with the genre’s national features.
    2. Der Freisch�tz (The Rifleman) by Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826) (see HWM Figure 26.6) established German Romantic opera.
      1. The opera exemplifies German Romantic opera.
        1. Ordinary folk, with their concerns and loves, are placed center stage.
        2. The plots are drawn from medieval history, legends, or fairy tales.
        3. The story involves supernatural beings set against a background of wilderness and mystery.
        4. Scenes of a humble village and country life are interspersed.
        5. Mortal characters represent superhuman forces, both good and evil.
        6. The triumph of good represents a type of religious redemption.
        7. The musical style draws upon traditions of other countries, but also uses simple, folklike melodies, giving it a distinctly German quality.
        8. The chromatic harmonies and orchestral color are also distinctive.
      2. “Wolf’s Glen” scene (NAWM 126)
        1. The scene is set around midnight at the eerie Wolf’s Glen (see HWM Figure 26.7).
        2. The scene incorporates elements of melodrama, a genre of musical theater that combines spoken dialogue with background music.
        3. While casting seven magic bullets, various terrifying images appear in the dark forest.
        4. Daring harmonies, a colorful orchestration, and an offstage chorus support the supernatural elements of the plot.
  5. Opera and Theater in the United States
    1. European influence.
      1. Traveling theater companies performed spoken plays, ballad operas, and English versions of foreign-language operas with spoken dialogue.
      2. These companies presented opera as entertainment for all classes.
      3. Foreign-language operas took hold slowly.
        1. In New Orleans, French operas were common; the Th�atre d’Orléans produced both French and Italian operas in their original language.
        2. In New York, a European troupe presented a season of Italian operas.
        3. Several attempts were made to establish a permanent Italian opera house, including one in 1833 that involved Lorenzo da Ponte, then a professor at Columbia University.
        4. The Academy of Music (1854) was the first company to last more than a few years.
        5. By the 1850s, operas in Italian and English were established in San Francisco.
      4. Opera achieved a high level of popularity.
        1. Overtures, arias, and other excerpts were freely performed.
        2. Swedish soprano Jenny Lind toured the United States (1850-52), singing before tens of thousands of people.
    2. American opera
      1. There was little demand for opera by American composers.
      2. The early attempts were influenced by European models.
    3. Minstrel shows
      1. Minstrelsy, a theatrical form in which white performers blackened their faces, was the most popular form of musical theater in the United States.
      2. One of the most successful troupes was Christy’s Minstrels (see HWM Figure 26.8).
      3. These shows allowed white performers to behave outside accepted norms and hence to comment candidly on social, political, and economic conditions.
      4. Today’s audiences would find these shows offensive for their racial stereotyping.
      5. Minstrelsy grew out of solo comic performances that produced some of the first bestseller songs to be a hit overseas.
      6. The songs for minstrel shows remained popu lar long after the shows went out of fashion.
        1. Dan Emmett from the Virginia Minstrels composed Dixie (1860).
        2. Stephen Foster wrote a number of songs for Christy’s Minstrels that evoke some qualities of African-American music.
          • Oh! Susanna (1848)
          • Camptown Races (1950)
          • Old Folks at Home (1951)
          • My Old Kentucky Home (1953)
      7. Minstrelsy was the first in a long succession of entertainment forms that white musicians have borrowed from the music of African Americans.